Originally published in Discovering the Secrets of Soft-Paste Porcelain at the Saint-Cloud Manufactory, ca. 1690-1766, edited by Bertrand Rondo. Published for The Bard Graduate Center for the Studies in the Decorative Arts, New York. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1999. 97–111.

When the Meissen porcelain manufactory was founded in 1710, its products were not made from hard-paste porcelain but rather from a stoneware, which was nonetheless called brown or red porcelain in contemporary documents. White porcelain was achieved in 1708 in experiments in a laboratory in Dresden, and the discovery of a satisfactory glaze soon followed. But it was not until 1713 that Meissen brought its true porcelain to market and the production of the stoneware body probably ceased. The formula for an acceptable underglaze blue also required several years of experimentation, after an initial success in 1714, and was not in routine use until the 1720s. Until the arrival of Johann Gregorius Höroldt (1696–1775) in 1720, other forms of decoration apart from molded ornament were executed outside the factory, in the goldsmiths’ workshops in Dresden and Augsburg, or by the court lacquerers in Dresden. Nonetheless, by the 1730s, with improvements to the paste and glaze, the introduction of a range of enamel colors and ground colors, and the artistic direction of Höroldt and, later, the modeler Johann Joachim Kändler (1706–1775), Meissen assumed leadership of the European ceramics industry. It only yielded this position after the disruptions of the Seven Years War (1756–63), in the face of competition from a number of new porcelain manufactories, which likewise contributed to the demise of Saint-Cloud.1

A consideration of the connections and parallels between Meissen and Saint-Cloud should not be limited to the period 1713–66, however. Whether there is a connection between the visit of Ehrenfried Walter von Tschirnhaus (1651–1708) to the manufactory in Saint­Cloud in 1701 and the discovery of the arcanum at Meissen in 1708, for example, is a tantalizing question, given Tschirnhaus’s summary opinion that the French concern would ultimately fail:

12. At Saint-Cloud I bought various pieces in the porcelain manufactory. Afterwards, however, they fell apart by themselves, because a lot of salt is used in the composition. They offer it at an expensive price, much higher than that of good porcelain, hence the sales are quite poor.

The oven and the machines for grinding were the best, although they were not perfect, as they should be. Otherwise, everything else was familiar to me. The blue color that he uses is far too dark black. In sum, I think this manufactory will fail.2

Tschirnhaus was an eminent roving scientist and mathematician in the circle of Leibniz, Homberg, and Huygens. He made four research trips to leading European cities between 1675 and 1702. His primary interest was in the use of optic lenses for the fusion of minerals. Curious about whether it would be possible to create porcelain by the same means, he was already in pursuit of the arcanum in 1677 when he wrote to Leibniz from Rome about his visit with the Milanese scientist and mathematician Manfredo Settala (1600–1680), who claimed to know the secret of porcelain manufacturing.3 This quest led Tschirnhaus eventually to Saint-Cloud and, at the end of his life, to the alchemist Johann Friedrich Böttger (1682–1719), whom he served as mentor and technical advisor as much as friend and protector. Tschirnhaus was one of two men entrusted with the arcanum for the porcelain invented in 1708, but he died within the year. So he stands in the shadow of Böttger, who is alone credited with its invention.

The young Tschirnhaus resided with Jean Baptiste Colbert (1619–1683), minister of finance, on his first visit to Paris in 1675, while serving as tutor to Colbert’s son. This auspicious situation must have exposed him to the Manufacture royale des Meubles de la Couronne, which Colbert had established in 1667. Tschirnhaus returned to Paris in 1679 and again in 1682, when he was named the first German member of the French Academy of Science, a distinction cited in the Mercure galant.4 Tschirnhaus was eventually retained by the governor (Statthalter) of· Saxony, Anton Egon Fürst von Fürstenberg (1656–1716). He made one last trip abroad in the fall and winter of 1701–2 to assess the market for Saxon goods and industries in Holland and France.5 A series of detailed observations on the state of various foreign industries and manufactures compiled for the governor in March 1702, including the report on Saint-Cloud, show that industrial espionage was one of the primary aims of the mission.

Before arriving in Paris in 1701, Tschirnhaus visited Amsterdam and The Hague to observe the cut-stone polishing and mirror-making industries in these cities. He encountered a man named Schüller who impressed him with a report of a porcelain decorator in Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland)6:

4. Because of the marble and precious stones, I have made the acquaintance of such men in every place through samples that I brought along. Especially because of them, I conferred with Claes van Loenen, Monsieur Metselaer and many other architects. The samples pleased them greatly, and they are willing to send them to people who inspect everything very carefully themselves. If certain marble pieces are suitable for them, they will pay for them right away, as people used to do in Italy.

5. Next I carefully observed a certain machine and learned its construction and use. With it, 24 marble stones from containers on the ground can be polished at the same time. In a similar manner, the machine can make small mirrors of a yard in size, which are quite in demand in Nuremberg.

6. I also spoke with a someone named Schüller who was from Breslau and has been known here for a long time. I revealed all these things to him. This man has received very many commissions of great importance from Germany, and, among other things, he spoke to me of a common man who lives not far from Breslau and who can paint quite beautifully on porcelain. Then he showed me some very beautiful pieces, which the Dutch had liked so much that they wanted to pay a lot of money in order to have him in Delft. I hope he will be of service to me in my porcelain plan.7

A stop in Delft, which was, beginning in the 1670s, the leading center of European ceramic production until the rise of Meissen, allowed Tschirnhaus to observe the so-called “Dutch porcelain” workshops:

I went to Delft and made myself carefully familiar with their so-called porcelain workshops. I especially learned how they glaze, how they stoke their kilns so that nothing clings to what is being fired, or also how nothing becomes impure during the firing. These things are quite unknown in our land.8

When Tschirnhaus at last arrived in Paris, the duc d’Aumont supplied him with several introductions that gave him access to the royal workshops in the Gobelins,9 among others:

In addition, I was also at Gobelins, where mosaic tables and panels are made. Works of such beauty and value cannot be seen in other places. They use a lot of our Saxon jasper for them. When I showed them the samples that I had brought with me, they wanted them very much and just complained that now the king would display such a bad desire for more of the same.

13. In the Fauxbourg St. Antoine is the large mirror manufactory.10 Everywhere in twos I saw people painting everything quite well, grinding, polishing, beating foil, coating mirrors, or cutting facets. If one knew nothing beforehand, he would be able to learn everything here. Without written permission, one is not allowed inside, and it is not shown to everyone. But I got in, before my arrival in Paris was very well known, through speaking to the right person and a little tip. There are over 600 persons constantly working here, and in addition, the buildings are so extensive, that one has to call this a very large establishment. The largest mirrors are 3 yards and a few inches. Not many of them are made, however, because they are often ruined in the manufacture. Most mirrors are somewhat over two yards. But the glass is quite poor, of a very dark green color. In my modest estimation, everything is not at all the same, neither the expense, the quality of the glass, the size, nor the ease of manufacturing. And according to the few persons who are required for it, it is actually not the same as that which one everywhere here intends….

15. At Challion11 I saw the fine manufactory which makes Persian carpets several times, and I took along a sample from it, as well as a description of everything that was made there.12

16. I was also very attentive to the work which is now so much in fashion in France. It is called marquetry, and many desks, cabinets and other things are made of it. I took along a sample of it.13

Tschirnhaus likewise toured Versailles and Marly before leaving Paris, paying special attention to the crystal chandeliers and porcelain collection in the Trianon de Marbre and the waterworks at Marly14:

17. I was once again at Versailles, in order to examine the crystal chandeliers very carefully, which the first time had not been possible. I was also at the Trianon because of the lovely porcelain and at Marly to see the curious water machine.15

Paris was also an important stop for the crown princes of Saxony during their respective Kavalierstours. While it is not recorded that either Friedrich August I or his son visited the ceramics manufactory located in Saint-Cloud, nor are they known to have received gifts of porcelain from the French king, nevertheless both young men were exposed to situations and settings that would certainly develop an awareness and taste for French products and decoration. Friedrich August I (1670–1733), later known as Augustus the Strong, made two stops in Paris during his three-year tour, traveling incognito as the comte de Leising (according to some sources, “Leißnigk”).16 He left Dresden with a small entourage on May 11, 1687, and arrived in Paris on June 11 for his first three-month stay. His time there consisted of events appropriate to the education of a prince and heir to the throne, and so he attended the “Academie” where lectures alternated with “Exercitia,” physical training such as fencing and riding. Of equal importance were the visits and entertainments at the royal residences in and around Paris. He visited Saint-Cloud on several occasions and resided there from June 21 until July 1. He also traveled to Versailles almost weekly and was so influenced by what he saw that it inspired his initiatives in Dresden twenty years later.17 The prince left Paris for Spain and Portugal on September 19 and returned a year later for a second stay that was cut short by the outbreak of the War of the League of Augsburg (1688–97).18 He departed hastily via Strasbourg, and from there he made his way to England, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, and Italy before returning to Dresden on April 8, 1689.19

Friedrich August II (1696–1763), later Augustus III, spent ten months in Paris, from September 1714 to June 1715. He also traveled incognito, as the comte de Lusace, during an extensive journey that lasted for seven years due in part to the issues attending his conversion to Catholicism.20 The arrangements for this part of his tour were overseen by the duchesse d’Orleans, who assured the prince’s father that she would treat the prince as a son.21 Accordingly, he enjoyed every imaginable diversion and entertainment:

Extract from Dispatch #32 from Mr. de Suhm, Fontainebleau, October 11, 1714.

Since my last letter, Monsieur le Comte de Lusace has been treated ceaselessly to Concerts, banquets, Hunting Expeditions, and Promenades; last Sunday the Most Christian King arranged a performance of Music on the Canal for him, which He heard in a specially prepared Gondola, and the King with his entire Court rode around the Canal in Carriages and on Horseback, in such great numbers and with such an assemblage of people, that the Spectacle was beautiful beyond compare.22

He attended the operas and comedies staged by members of the court:

Extract from Dispatch #42 from Mr. de Suhm, Paris, December 21, 1714.

The other Day the Princesse de Conty had the Comédie Italienne perform at her Townhouse for Monseigneur le Comte de Lusace; there was Music, and Scenes of Shepherds and Shepherdesses, and Dances and Ballets between the Acts.23

And in return, the prince hosted a masked ball for Carneval:

Extract from Dispatch #50 from Mr. de Suhm, Paris, February 22, 1715.

The Ball which Monseigneur le Comte de Lusace hosted the other day was approved by all, there were more than 10 Masques, and “la grande Saule” and the press notwithstanding, everybody left thoroughly content, and there were no disturbances or incidents of any sort, it lasted until 10 o’clock in the morning, and would have gone on for all of the next day had it not been necessary (for it was Sunday) to send away the violinists.24

His stay in Paris coincided with the visits of the electors of Cologne and of Bavaria, who honored the prince with a dinner at Saint-Cloud.25

In the company of the king, the prince indulged his passion for hunting in the various royal parks, enjoyed the fountains at Marly and Versailles, and attended the audience of the Persian embassy on January 19 at Versailles.26 And on May 28, at Marly, he took formal leave of the king, who presented him with a jeweled sword:

Extract from Dispatch #63 from Mr. de Suhm, Paris, May 31, 1715.

On the 28th of the Month, Monseigneur le Comte de Lusace was at Marly to take his leave of the Most Christian King after having dined at the Residence of Monsieur le Marquis de Torey,27 he went into the “Cabinet” of the king to pay him a fine Compliment, His Majesty did the same in return and Stayed with him for quite some time, and give Him from His own hand a beautiful and magnificent Sword, estimated to be worth fifty million Ecus, and then He embraced Him and dismissed Him; His Majesty’s actions on this occasion were so full of affection and so gracious that all who witnessed them were charmed. Thence Monsgr. le Comte de Lusace took his Leave of Madame la Duchesse de Berry, of Madame, of Monsr. and Madame la Duchesse d ‘Orleans, and of other princesses; Madame la Duchesse de Berry prepared a Game for Him at the Salon over which She presides, then invited Him for a walk accompanied by all the Women, and the various Fountains were set flowing as She led Him around, they went to meet the king at the Pall-Mall, and returned to the Salon to play, and Monsgr. le Comte de Lusace then left and went for the night to Versailles where the Next Morning He took his Leave of Monsieur le Dauphin and then saw the Waterworks at Versailles and Trianon, then that Night back to Paris, and shortly thereafter he departed to make a tour of the Kingdom.28

On his departure from Paris for Spain in mid-June, the prince was a guest of the prince de Condé at Chantilly, whose gardens and forests he termed “une des merveilles de la France.”29

Unlike his father, however, Friedrich August II was not passionate about porcelain, and it is uncertain what sorts of souvenirs and gifts the prince was collecting in Paris, apart from what is noted above. Augustus the Strong, on the other hand, made his most important acquisitions of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain during his son’s long absence from Saxony. He also embarked on the acquisition and furnishing of the Japanese Palace, where the marriage of the Crown Prince to Archduchess Maria Josepha (1699–1757) was celebrated with a lavish state dinner and fireworks over the Elbe in 1719. The king particularly favored blue-and-white ceramics, as had Louis XIV and the Dauphin.30 He generally purchased porcelain through agents in Paris or Amsterdam, or bought from the foreign dealers who operated in Dresden, with names such as Bassetouche, Valentin, Konspruck, and de Croogh, showing France and Holland to be the source for these pieces as well.31 More remarkable was the exchange in 1717 of an elite regiment of 600 soldiers for 151 pieces of Chinese porcelain from the Prussian royal collection, including the large blue­-and-white vases referred to today as Dragoon vases.32 The collections of the king’s ministers and courtiers enriched the royal holdings as well on various occasions.33

In 1722, 804 pieces of porcelain entered the Japanese Palace from the bequest of Daniel Friedrich Raschke (d.1722), a Saxon cabinet minister who resided in Amsterdam in 1708 and 1709 and presumably formed the collection of ceramics, Chinese carvings, and lacquerwares left as a bequest to the king during his stay in that city.34 In the valuation compiled after Raschke’s death, one entry describes three pieces as French porcelain: “1. Spice box with lid, inside four compartments; in addition, two salt cellars of French porcelain that belong with it.”35

When these pieces were entered into the catalogue of the Japanese Palace begun in 1721, the Inventarium über das Hollandische Palais zu Alt-Dreßden or Inventarium über das Palais zu Alt-Dreßden Anno 1721 (hereafter Inventarium…1721)36, they were instead classified as Meissen (“Sächsisch”) porcelain and described as follows:

Number 72. A blue and white round spice box. The lid has the same colors with a cleanly painted knob. 2 ½ inches high; 4 ¾ inches in diameter.

Number 73. 2 round gadrooned saltcellars. 2 inches high; 3 ½ inches wide.37

The saltcellars have been lost. As described they must be Saint-Cloud models comparable to two in the exhibition (see cat. nos. 62 and 63). The spice box has survived and was attributed in 1992 to Saint-Cloud, but because it bears the mark A.P., it has been reattributed to the short-lived manufactory operated by Antoine Pavie.38

When the odd piece of French porcelain came to Dresden by way of Holland, or perhaps directly from Paris, it entered the company of the wares from Asia or from Meissen, and any connection to France was effectively lost. Clearly Raschke was aware of the French origin of his pieces, as was the individual who compiled the valuation, but the persons responsible for registering the pieces in Dresden had to conform to the existing classifications of the Inventarim … 1721 which recognized only the following ceramic categories:39

Japanese porcelain; “krack” porcelain; white Chinese porcelain; green Chinese porcelain; red Chinese porcelain40; blue and white East-Indian porcelain; white Saxon porcelain; brown Saxon porcelain; terra sigillata; black porcelain41; Delft ware; clay vessels for the most part painted by Raphael Urbino.42

French porcelain, like Dutch redwares and even Chinese Yixing ware, could not be categorized within the confines of the system already in place and were therefore alternatively classified to fit in.43 The distinctions between pieces that appeared outwardly to be alike were essentially irrelevant in the context of the porcelain rooms where ceramics of all sort were exhibited in massed arrangements according to color and design. This seemingly loose approach to classification was typical of the period, in Dresden and elsewhere.

An early but unmarked Saint-Cloud ewer arrived in Dresden before the Raschke pieces, though its provenance is unknown.44 It was listed in the Inventarium … 1721 under “Blau und Weiß, Indianisch Porcelain” in the chapter devoted to tea- and coffee­wares: “Number 184. Another of the same. 7 inches high and 4 inches in diameter.”45 The preceding entry lists nine jugs of similar form: “Number 183. 9 oval, round milk jugs with pinched spouts and handles. 7 inches high and 4 inches in diameter.”46 When two jugs from the group of nine were sold from the Dresden collection in 1920, the entries and illustrations in the sale-catalogue showed them to be Chinese and not French.47 The differences in the scale and pattern of the underglaze-blue decoration probably caused the French piece to receive its own individual number and entry.

One final example of Saint-Cloud porcelain is found today in the Porzellansammlung, but it lacks a royal inventory number. It must therefore have entered the Dresden collections too late to be included in the eighteenth-century inventories. A trembleuse saucer lacking its cup, it appears to be en suite to a teapot in the Musée national de Céramique at Sèvres which is painted with the same mark.48

Although Saint-Cloud porcelain is scarcely known in early German collections, it was obviously a princely treasure, as demonstrated by the situation in Dresden and elsewhere.49 Schloß Favorite, for example, was a summer palace built around 1710 by Augustus the Strong’s contemporary, the margravine Sibylla Augusta (1675–1733), for the display of her renowned ceramics collection. The factory is represented there, however, by only four mustard pots (comparable to cat. nos. 72 and 73) and a set of cutlery handles decorated with strapwork in underglaze blue, despite the fact that the margravine’s daughter married Louis II (1703–1752), duc d’Orléans, successor to the patron of the manufactory.50 A relatively larger group of “St. Clous” [sic] porcelain appears in the 1738 inventory of Monbijou, summer residence of Sophie Dorothea (d. 1757), the mother of Frederick the Great:

Of white porcelain from St.-Clous [sic]
A tureen with a cover and two handles.
A tureen without a cover, but with two handles.
Two of the same but smaller.
Another two of the same, somewhat smaller.
Two small soup bowls.
Two small beakers with feet.
Two tall cups with lids.
Two saltcellars.
A small jug with a lid.
A soup bowl with lid and plate.
A lamp.51

None of the pieces from this group are known to have survived in Berlin, and their provenance is undetermined. If they were entirely white, as described, they must be among the earliest of the manufactures from Saint-Cloud of this style.

Even though it was rarely imported into Germany, Saint-Cloud porcelain was acknowledged and praised by the notable chronicler Johann Christian Kundmann in a report on the state of the ceramics industry in Europe published in Leipzig and Breslau in 1723, in the Sammlung von Natur- und Medicin-, wie auch hierzu gehörigen Kunst­ und Literatur-geschichten. Kundmann possessed an unusual awareness of Tschirnhaus’s role at Meissen and of the history of developments there and elsewhere, probably gleaned from published accounts as opposed to first-hand experience:

Nowhere, as far as I know, has East-Indian porcelain been better imitated in Europe until now than at St.-Cloud, which is near Paris. The vessels are quite thin, transparent and sonorous, a lovely white, nicely painted with light and dark blue, and so hard that their surface can strike like oriental fire and cut glass; outside of that, it is supposed to be subject to breakage. At this time Baron Bötticher revealed his method to the famous Tschirnhausen in Dresden, of how one could make a porcelain similar to the Chinese. Tschirnhausen made this kind of porcelain from some washed, ash-colored soil that he had recently received from a good friend. His vessels are whiter or milkier, also somewhat more opaque, but in hardness they are supposed to exceed genuine porcelain, because their manner is much better, the exquisite decoration with gold much higher, and the sublime figures much more special. But the gold-leaf coating is more for display than to last; on Oriental porcelain, in contrast, which has gold painted onto it, the coating lasts. In the beginning this porcelain was left entirely white, as the Chinese did long ago, before they invented color. For the last five or six years, it has been painted blue by Herr Kohler, but not with indigo, as some authors report of the Indian wares, for it is impossible for the juice of a vegetable to survive the strong fire and still be able to produce a blue color. Instead of indigo, the finest smalt has been used. Thus P. d ‘Entrecolle thought along the same lines in the report of a hard stone given beforehand. According to it, the most beautiful blue in China is brought to porcelain painting through roasting, which without doubt has to be nothing other than an ore that contains cobalt. I still want to report about the Dresden porcelain. Now, the coarse sand is not washed as carefully from the clay as in the beginning. This gives the porcelain sand kernels that are glasslike or slightly opaque and causes a lot of breakage. In Vienna, a beautiful, similar porcelain is supposedly being produced using clay from Debreczin in Upper Hungary. If this porcelain is not preferred to that from Dresden, it is, however, certainly to be given an equal attention. All of this porcelain can especially in Dresden but also here be artistically painted over and the colors fired in. In Breslau, Herr Peussler only made gray in gray or black painting; but now Herr Pottengruber produces all assorted colors, and indeed with a perfection that has never before been seen…. In Delft, to be sure, all sorts of vessels have been produced for years that to external appearance look rather similar to genuine porcelain; but that is actually just the effect of the glazing, for internally it is just clay, which has neither tone nor transparency…52

Typically, Meissen based its early manufacures on models supplied by artists attached to the bourt of borrow from the royal collections in Dresden. Even if it were possible to locate further evidence of Saint-Cloud porcelain in the Inventarium…1721, it is doubtful that any of this small group made it to Meissen for copying. Nonetheless, among the underglaze-blue decoration produced at Meissen in the 1720s and even later, certain Chinese motifs and lappets or borders of scrollwork ornament could be demonstrated to be similar to Saint-Cloud decoration of around 1700.53

This is chiefly a coincidence arising from the development in Dresden of an informed French taste as a result of the crown princes’ and their agents’ and ministers’ exposure to the court of Louis XIV. It was also due to the influence of the many French artists brought to Dresden by Augustus the Strong and his son, such as Raymond LePlat, Louis de Silvestre (1675–1760), François Coudray (1678–1727), and Zacharias Longuelune (1669–1748).54 Thus, the same sorts of Chinese porcelains, or models in silver, that influenced Saint-Cloud production directed to the French court became fashionable in Dresden a generation later. This taste was probably sustained in the interim by the products of the faience industry in Delft and the silversmiths in Augsburg, until it surfaced in Dresden in the work of the court goldsmith, Johann Jacob Irminger (d. 1721), and the court lacquerer, Martin Schnell (ca. 1675–1740), and at the faience manufactory founded in 1708 under the direction of Peter Eggebrecht (d. 1738), one of two Dutch-trained painters lured early on to Meissen.55 Perhaps the sole instance of Meissen imitating Saint-Cloud are the Meissen cutlery handles decorated with delicate lacework in underglaze blue, sometimes traced over the glaze in iron red, yellow, and green enamels. But the market for cutlery handles was apparently enormous, given the numbers of these pieces that were produced at Saint-Cloud and at Meissen, and the taste for this sort of ornament on porcelain handles seems to have been common among patrons in France and in Germany.56

In rare instances, design initiatives first employed at Meissen can be found on Saint-Cloud porcelain. The masks on certain Saint-Cloud jugs and wine coolers are close in concept to the classical masks introduced at Meissen during the Böttger period—on vases or teapots designed by Irminger and Le Plat, for example. Some are serene visages with feather headdresses, and others are quite animated, with wild hair and gaping mouths. The affinity between white Saint-Cloud pieces manufactured in the 1740s and 1750s and the white wares of the earlier Böttger-period at Meissen (1713–19) seems natural. Both manufactories followed the example of blanc-de-chine porcelain and developed molded decoration that was free from enameling, moving quickly from Chinese models to stylized chinoiserie patterns and European-style ornament based on contemporary silver or on the enduring designs of certain influential artists and designers. At Meissen around 1720, molded ornament temporarily gave way to flat surfaces suitable for painting.

But with Kandler’s arrival in 1731, molded ornament and sculptural details began to dominate again, especially in a series of commissions for members of the court that may have elicited notice in France. The long-necked birds and vegetation in low-relief on certain Saint-Cloud tablewares, for example, recall the subject and design of the molded pattern devised for the famous Swan Service commissioned for Heinrich Graf von Brühl and his wife around 1736. Likewise, the garlands of European flowers that appear on Saint-Cloud potpourri correspond very closely to the modeled flower-work introduced at Meissen around 1735–37 on the breakfast service made for Princess Wilhelmine of Prussia, goddaughter of Augustus the Strong; on the porcelain coffer created for his wife; and on the altar garniture commissioned for his mother-in-law, the widowed Empress Wilhelmine Amalie of Austria.57

Meissen porcelain could be produced in models and sizes, and with fine molding and enamel colors, that were beyond the capabilities of the French porcelain industry until after the middle of the century, so there was a ready market in France for Meissen wares, but in shapes and styles specifically suited to French needs or to the requirements of the marchands-merciers. The demand for toilette articles, in particular, including pomade jars, écuelles, ewers, and cups with covers, initiated a range of models not typical of production for the court or local markets in Saxony and its bordering states at that period.58 Models unknown in Meissen porcelain, such as potpourri vases and candelabrum,were invented by the French marchands-merciers using simple figures and containers from Meissen, and they were often mounted in combination with Vincennes flowers to appeal to an elite clientele.59

Rudolf Lemaire was the first French merchant to hold the monopoly for the sale of Meissen porcelain in France and Holland. He ordered copies of over two hundred pieces of porcelain, mostly Japanese wares, from the royal collection in the Japanese Palace beginning in 1729.60 The fashion for artichoke-shaped toilet pots in France, so obvious in the products of the Saint-Cloud manufactory between 1730 and 1750, probably inspired the production of covered beakers with saucers and small bowls “nach Artischocken Art” or “en feuilles d’artichaux” for Lemaire, though the Meissen versions copied Asian models and were consequently more restrained.61 It is interesting to find the intended function of certain models also noted in French in the delivery lists for the Lemaire orders, for example, “Kleine Terrine oder Pot à oile mit Deckel or “Zucker Dosen oder Mortiers à Bouquets.”62 Lemaire’s contract was abruptly cancelled in 1731 and he was deported, just as his venture began to attract positive notice in Paris. The Mercure de France for that year, for example, wrote that

such progress has been made in the last two or three years that Models, drawings, and knowledgeable persons are now being sent out from Paris, and a large quantity of the pieces emanating from there are of comparable quality to the most beautiful pieces coming from China and Japan, and often in more beautiful forms, such as Figures, Animals, Trees, Plants, and Flowers… that are better drawn and display a palette of greater variety and overall unity. The Reliefs, Broderies and Ornaments are treated with great symmetry, precision, and taste; such that the ablest connoisseurs are often at a Loss, taking this new porcelain for old, and often even preferring it… The proof of the beauty of these Works of which we are speaking may be found in Paris itself, in the rue Dauphine, at the shop of Monsieur LeBrun, Jewelry Merchant, affiliated with the Dresden Porcelain Manufactory, who sells a great number of them at a most reasonable price, for it is at least two thirds Less than that of porcelains coming from the Indies. There one sees tall pieces, with ornament, and in various colors, of great beauty, pots for water, tobacco, ointment, sugar, and en litron, as well as other forms, serving platters, plates, saucers, drageoires (dish for sweets), snuffboxes, cups and gobelets of various sorts; porringers, covered-bowls for olio broth, etc., all of which has endured the most violent heat of the kiln, as well as even washing in boiling water.63

Production for the French market continued without interruption, however, through Lemaire’s associate, Jean-Charles Huet, who facilitated trade between France and the court of Saxony.64

© Bard Graduate Center, Maureen Cassidy-Geiger.

Texts quoted and translated into English in this essay will be found below in the original language. We are grateful to Terry Prince for his translations from the German and Richard Wittman for the French. The Haupt Staatsarchiv, Dresden, has been abbreviated below as “HStA.”

1.The literature concerning the history of the Meissen manufactory is considerable. Certain books are standard sources, such as Otto Walcha, Meissen Porcelain (New York, 1981); Rold Sonnemann and Eberhard Wächtler, eds., Johann Friedrich Böttger, Die Erfindung des europäischen Porzellans (Stuttgart, 1982) ; Klaus-Peter Arnold and Verena Diefenbach, Meissener Blaumalerei aus Drei Jahrhunderten , exh. cat., Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg (Leipzig, 1989); Rainer Rückert, Biographische Daten der Meißener Manufakturisten des 18. Jahrhunderts (Munich, 1990). See also Otto Walcha, “Kleine Chronik der fruhen meissner Blaumalerei” in Keramo, no. 47 (January 1970), pp. 28–34.

2.12. Zu Saint Clou, in der Porcellain-Manufactur, kauffte ich mir unterschiedene stücke, die mir aber hernach von selbst zersprungen, denn in der Composition viel Salia gebrauchet werden, Sie geben sie sehr theüer, und viel höher alß guten Porcelain, weßwegen der Abgang sehr schlecht ist,

Der Ofen und die Machinen zum Reiben der Materialien, war das beste, wiewohl noch nicht vollkommen, wie es seyn solte. Das andere ware mir alles bekannt. Die blaue Farbe, so er brauchet, ist viel zu tunckel schwarz, In Summa, Ich glaube, daß diese Manufactur zu Grunde gehen wird. HStA, Loc. 489, Allerhand Project … I am extremely grateful to Dr. Mathias Ullmann of the Tschirnhaus-Forschungsstelle for this and the following transcriptions from the report filed by Tschirnhaus in 1702. Transcriptions that appear in the notes throughout this essay contain the misspellings and inaccuracies of the original texts.

3.“Tschirnhausen. Rome, the 17th of April. 77. On the return trip from Italy, H. Settala wanted me to stay a while in Milan and promised to teach everything· that was necessary to make ruby-glass and porcelain, except for distilling without fire or sun.” [Tsch. Rom. 17. April. 77. H. Settala hat mir wenn in der ruckreise auß Italien etwas zu Milan verbleiben wolte, alles was verlangie zu lernen versprochen ausgenommen distillieren ohne feuer oder sonne, den rubin und das porcellan zu machen.] From the letter transcribed in Gottfried Wilhelm Freiherr von Leibniz, Mathematischer Naturwissenschaftlicher und technischer Briefwechsel, 2d ed. (Berlin, 1987), p. 73.

4.Tschirnhaus arrived in Paris on 9 April 1682, and the news of his membership was published in the July Mercure galant, according to E. Winter, E.W. von Tschirnhaits und die Frühaufklärung in Mittel- und Osteuropa (Berlin, 1960), p. 16, n. 2. Martin Lister, a member of the Royal Society of London chartered in 1662, attended one of the meetings of the French Academy when he was in Paris in 1698 with William Bentinck’s mission to France. He reported, “I cannot say much of these Gentlemen of the Acad. Royal. de Sciences, there are but few of them, about 12 or 16 members; all Pensioned by the King in some manner or other. / They endeavored in the War time to have printed monthly Transactions or Memoires after the manner of ours in London; but could not carry them on above two Volumes or Years, for without great Correspondence this can hardly be done. And ours is certainly one of the best Registers that ever was thought on …” Dr. Martin Lister, A Journey to Paris in the Year 1698 (London, 1699), p. 80. The question arises, in this context, whether a published report of Morin’s paper delivered to the Academy in 1692, “Mémoire sur la fabrication de la porcelaine,” was known to Tschirnhaus, who was by this time a member.

5.In 1706 he sold a mirror to the duc d’Orleans, who purchased it for the French Academy of Sciences for scientific purposes.

6.The reference may have been to one of the well-known porcelain decorators, or so-called Hausmaler, working for a time in Breslau; see M. Cassidy-Geiger, “The Porcelain Decoration of Ignaz Bottengruber,” in Metropolitan Museum Journal 33 (1998), pp. 245–62; and idem, “Repraesentatio Belli, ob successionem in regno hispanico…: A Tea Service and Garniture by the Schwarzlot Decorator Ignaz Preissler,” in Metropolitan Museum Journal 24 (1989), pp. 239–54.

7.4. Wegen der Marmor und Edelsteine, habe solche auch aller orthen durch mitgenommene proben bekannt gemacht, besonders deßhalber mit Claes van Loenen, Monsieur Metselaer und noch vielen andern Architecten conferiret, Da ihnen denn die mitgebrachten Proben alle sehr wohlgefallen, und sind sie willens, Leüthe anhero zu senden, die alles selbst in Augenschein nehmen, und gewiße Marmor-Brüche, so ihnen anstünden, vor sich zahlen laßen wolten, Alß welches sie in Italien auch zu thun pflegeten;

5. Hiernechst habe ich eine gewiße Machine wohl betrachtet, und deren Construction und Gebrauch erlernt, Vermittelst deren auf einmahl 24. Marmor-Steine, zu Fußboden in Gemächern, können poliret, auch mit selbiger auf gleiche Arth, kleine Spiegel von Ellen groß, wie man solche sehr zu Nürnberg verlanget, verfertiget werden, Und

6. Mit einem, Nahmens Schüller, so von Breslau bürtig ist, und mit von langer Zeit her bekannt gewesen, gesprochen, und ihme dieses alles zu erkennen gegeben, Dieser Mann hat sehr viele Commissiones von großer Wichtigkeit, auß Teütschland auf sich, Und er hat mir unter andern, von einem gemeinen Manne, nicht weit von Breslau wohnhafftig, gesaget, der sehr schön auf den Porcelain mahlen könne, Wie er mir den sehr schöne Proben gewiesen, die denen Holländern so wohl gefallen, daß sie viel Geld geben wolten, umb ihn nacher Delft zu habenl Welcher mir verhoffentlich zu meinem Vorhaben im Porcelain sehr dienlich seyn wird. … HStA, Loc. 489, Allerhand Project.

8.“Gieng ich nacher Delft, und habe alldar ihre so genannten Porcelain-Wercke mir gar genau, und vollkommen bekant gemachet, besonders die Glasur, den Ofen zum Brand zu sezen, damit nichts anhänget, oder auch im Brennen es nicht unreine wird, so unsers orthes ganz unbekannt.” Ibid., Loc. 489, Allerhand Project.

9.Martin Lister also visited the Gobelins, where he observed the production of marble tables and garden sculpture; see Lister, A Journey, p. 145.

10.Martin Lister likewise reported on these glassworks; see ibid., pp. 142–43. For original German translation of this passage from Tschirnhaus’s report, see note 13 below.

11.Actually Chaillot, later the Savonnerie carpet manufactory.

12.The samples and other written notes and observations that accompanied Tschirnhaus’s 1702 report have all been lost, according to Dr. Matthias Ullmann. Tschirnhaus’s scientific papers, books, and “curiöse Sachen,” or “odd things,” were left to the nation upon his death; the books were eventually sold in 1723. See Winter, E.W. von Tschirnhaus, p. 72.

13.Weiter bin ich auch gewesen aux Gobelins, allwo Tische und Tafeln â la Mosaica verfertiget warden, Dergleichen anderswo von solcher Schönheit und Kostbarkeit nicht zu sehen. Sie brauchen viel von unserm Sächsischen Jaspis hierzu, und wie ihnen meine mitgebrachte Proben zeigete, waren sie sehr begierig darzu, beklageten nur, daß iezo der König so schlechte Lust mehr zu dergleichen bezeigete …

13. In der Fauxbourg St. Antoine, Ist die große Spiegel-Manufactur, allwo bey zweyen mahlen alles sehr wohl besehen, an Schleiffen, poliren, fole schlagen, die Spiegel belegen , facetten zu schleiffen , daß, wenn es nicht vorher wuste , allhier hätte lernen können; Man wird ohne schrifftliche ordre nicht hinein gelaßen; Wird auch nich allen gezeiget , Kame aber bald anfangs, ehe noch mein Arrivo in Paris vielbekannt wurde, durch Adresse und ein weniges Trinckgeld hinein. Es sind über 600 Persohnen, die stets arbeiten, und so wetläufftige Gebäude hierzu, daß dis ein Werck von sehr großen Verlag. Die grösten Spiegel seynd 3. Ellen, und etliche Zoll noch drüber, Es werden aber deren nicht viel gemacht, weil sie offt in der Arbeit verderben, Die Meisten sind etwas über zwey Ellen; Aber das Glaß, ist sehr gering von sehr dunckeler grüner Farbe, alles, meinen wenigen Erachten nach , ganz nicht gleich, sowohl den Unkosten, der Güthe des Glaßes, der Große, der Leichtigkeit in fabriciren, und der wenigen Persohnen nach, die hierzu erfordert werden, dem jenigen nemblich nicht gleich, Was man allhier zu Lande vorhatte …

15. Zu Challions habe etliche mahl die schöne Manufactur, die Persianischen Tapeten zu machen besehen, worvon Probe mitgebracht, und eine Beschreibung sub H. was alldar fabriciret wird, …

16. Auch habe ich die Arbeit wohl in Acht genommen, so iezo in Franckreich grand Mode ist , die Marqueterie genannt, woraus sie Schreibe-Tische , Schräncke, und viele andere Sachen fabriciren, Darvon eine Probe mit genommen … HStA, Loc. 489, Allerhand Project.

14.Martin Lister devotes four pages to his tour of Versailles , and twice as many to his visit to Marly , where he observed “Within the Bar was disposed several Rows of Procellain or fine China on Gilt Shelves …”; see Lister, A Journey, pp. 210–19. The château at Marly, built in the 1680s for Louis XIV, had a series of ornamental and reflecting pools with a monumental cascade. Garden terraces flanking the pools featured twelve pavilions for guests and it was considered a privilege to be invited to view the waterworks. See Peter Thornton, Seventeenth-Century Interior Decoration in England, France, and Holland (New Haven, 1981), pp. 18–21; and Stéphane Pincas, Versailles (New York, 1996), pp. 18–19.

15.17. Zu Versailles bin ich nocht einmahl gewesen, umb wegen der Crystallinen Leuchter, was das erste mahl nicht wohl möglich war, vollends in acht zu nehmen, Ingleichen zu Trianon der schönen Porcelaine wegen, und zu Marly die curieuse Waßer­Machine zu besehen. HStA, Loc. 489, Allerhand Project. See also note 30 below concerning the porcelain at Versailles in 1689.

16.The pretense of traveling incognito was common during this period; see note 20 below. The details of his journey derive from HStA, Loc. 754, Diarium … des Prinzen Friedrich. Augusts Herzogs zu Sachßen gethane Reysen in fremde Länder betr: Anno 1687 bis 1689; see also Karl Czok, Am Hofe Augusts des Starken (Stuttgart, 1990).

17.He may have witnessed the final days of the Trianon de Porcelaine, a likely source for the idea of the Japanese Palace in Dresden completed between 1717 and 1719. According to John Whitehead and Christian Baulez, the Trianon de Porcelaine was already in considerable disrepair when the decision was reached on 5 or 6 July 1687 to demolish it, a process that began a few weeks later and proceeded in stages.

18.In his absence, work was completed on the rebuilding of the Trianon; see Guy Walton, Louis XIV’s Versailles (Chicago, 1986), pp. 151–52. Despite his short stay in Paris, the Crown Prince visited Versailles twice, on 25 and 30 September 1688, and it is noted that he saw the Trianon and the Menagerie in the company of the Dauphin and the duc d’Orléans.

19.The prince was given safe passage to Italy through the neutral territory controlled by Victor Amadeus II, duke of Savoy. Their ensuing friendship was recognized in 1725 when the by-then elector of Saxony and king of Poland sent several cases of Meissen porcelain to the new king of Sardinia in exchange for a set of tapestries. See Ingelore Menzhausen, “Ein Porzellangeschenk Augusts des Starken für den König von Sardinien,” in Keramos 119 (January 1988), pp. 99–102.

20.It was common for foreign princes to travel incognito, as it prevented breaches of protocol; this was discussed in the following report to Agustus the Strong:

Extract from Dispatch #22 from Mr. de Suhm, Paris, August 3, 1714.

Monsieur de Torcy spoke to me yesterday of having talked with Madame regarding the arrival of the Royal Prince, and mentioned that She had said that She would have the honor of presenting Him to the King. I have been informed how things unfolded when the Royal Prince, who is today King of Denmark, was here, I was fortunate enough to have communicated to me what the Introducer of Ambassadors wrote at that time in his Protocol; of which the copy is joined here; everything could be arranged in the same way for the Royal Prince who is coming, and possibly even better, in order not to fall unto difficulties with the Princes of the Blood; Monsieur de Torcy told me regarding this that the Royal Prince, who wishes to be incognito here, would do well to see everybody, and to make no demands; the Royal Prince of Denmark, after having been the first to see the Dauphin and Monsieur, would have done better also to see the other Princes of the Blood, rather than to play the unknown with them and the known with the others. The Elector of Bavaria is here, and the Elector of Cologne is expected, the townhouse of the Reine Marguerite has been rented for him and he will be here incognito; Prince Ragotski is also incognito, these three princes have ministers acting as Envoys, they desire to see the Royal Prince just like the other foreign ministers, since they are recognized by this Court; the fact that the Royal Prince is incognito may excuse everything, however it would be good to know in advance whether for the same reason the Royal Prince could also be able to see the Electros of Cologne and Bavaria. [Extrait De la Relation 22. De Mr. de Suhm, daté, a Paris, le 3e. Aout 1714. Monsr. De Torcy me dit hier d’avoir parlé avec Madame sur l’arrivé du Prince Royal et qu’Elle avoit dit, qu’Elle auroit l’honneur de Le presenter au Roy. Je me suis informé coment les choses se sont passées quand le Prince Royal, à présent Roy de Dannemarc, a été icy, on a eu la bonté de me communiquer ce que l’Introducteur des Ambassadeurs alors en a écrit dans son Protocol; dont la Copie est cy-jointe; tout pourroit être réglé sur le même pied pour le Prince Royal qui arrive, et on pourroit faire mieux pour Luy, à fin de ne pas tomber dans les inconvenients avec les Princes du Sang; Mr. de Torcy m’a dit à cet égard, que le Prince Royal voulant être incognito icy, feroit bien de voir tout le monde, et de ne riend prétendre; le Prince Royal de Dannemarc aprez avoir êté le premier à voir le Dauphin et Monsieur, auroit mieux fait de voir aussi les austres Princes du Sang, que de fair l’inconnu avec les uns, et le connu avec les austres. Il y a l’Electeur de Baviere ici, et l’Electeur de Cologne est attendu, on a loué l’hotel de la Reine Marguerite pour lui et il sera incognito; Le Prince Ragotski est aussi incognito, ces trois Princes ont des Ministres avec caractere d’Envoyés, ils voudront voir le Prince Royale comme les autres ministres etrangers, puis qu’ils sont reconnus caracterises à cette Cour; l’incognito du Prince Royale peut tout excuser, cependant il seroit bon de savoir d’avance, si par la même raison le Prince Royale puisse voir aussi les Electeurs de Cologne et de Baviere.] HstA, Loc. 758, vol. 4, Ihrer Hoheit des Königl: Pritzens Friedrich Augusts Reise in frembde Länder betr. Ao 1714, fol. 105 a, b.

The issues surrounding the prince’s conversion and his arrival in Paris are described by Saint-Simon; see the Mémoires de M. le duc de Saint-Simon (reprint of Boislisle’s 1913 edition), vol. 13 [Boislisle’s vol. 25], pp. 109–15. According to note 7 in vol. 26, p. 220, he resided at Hotel d’ Hollande, on the Quai des Théatins. A painting of the prince’s formal introduction to the king in 1714 at Fontainebleau by Liselotte van der Pfalz, executed by Louis de Silvestre, belongs to the Gemäldegalerie in Dresden (inv. no. Mo 2280) and appears in the listing of artworks purchased in Paris by order of the king in 1716; see Walter Holzhausen, “Die Bronzen Augusts des Starken in Dresden,” in Jahrbuch der Preussischen Kunstsammlungen, vol. 60 (Berlin, 1939), p. 184.

21.There was speculation in Paris that the visit was preliminary to the marriage of the prince to her daughter, “Yesterday the Papal Nuncio told me that the latest from Paris was that the Royal Prince was coming to marry a daughter of Monsieur le Duc d’Orléans, and he asked me if it was true, I told him I knew nothing about it.” [Hier Mr. Le Nonce du Pape me dit, que le bruit de Paris etoit que le Prince Royale venoit icy pour epouser une fille de Mr. le Duc d’Orléans et me demanda si etoit vray, je luy ay repondu que je n’en savois rien.] HStA, Loc. 758, vol. 4, fol. 105b.

22.Extrait De la Relation 32. de Mr. de Suhm, datée a Fontainebleau, le 11 e. Oct, 1714.

Depuis ma derniere on a continuellement donné a Mr. le Comte de Lusace des Concerts, des grands repas, la Chasse et la Promenade; Dimanche passé le Roy T.C. luy donna la Musique sur le Canal, qu’Il entendit dans une Gondole préparée pour Luy, et le Roy avec toute sa Cour fit le tour du Canal en Carosses et à Cheval, en si grand nombre et avec un concours de tant de monde, que le Spectacle en êtoit beau tout à fait. HStA, Loc. 758, vol. 4, fol. 147a.

23.Extrait De la Relation 42. de Mr. de Suhm, datée à Paris le 21e. Dec, 1714.

La Princesse de Conty donna l’autre Jour dans son Hôtel a Monseigneur le Comte de Lusace la Comedie Italienne, de la Musique, des Scenes de Bergers et Bergeres, et des Dances et des Ballets entre les Actes. HStA, Loc. 758, vol. 4, fol. 204a.

24.Extrait De la Relation 50. de Mr. de Suhm, datée à Paris le 22e. Fev, 1715.

Le Bal que Monseigneur le Comte de Lusace donna l’autre jour, a eu l’approbation de tout le monde, plus de 10. Masques y ont êté, et non obstant la grande Saule et la presse, chacun est retourné content, et il n’est arrivé aucun desordre ou malheur ni invonvenient, il a duré jusqu’au matin à 10. heures, et on auroit continué tout ce jour là , si à cause du Dimanche on n ‘eût renvoyé les Violons. HStA, Loc. 758, vol. 5, fol. 35a.

25.The dinner for the Crown Prince was held on 23 November 1714 (HStA, Loc. 758, vol. 4, fol. 185). On 22 March 1715 the prince attended a dinner for the departing elector of Bavaria hosted by the duc d’Antin, who was noted by Saint­Simon for his purchases of Saint-Cloud manufactures to replace the silver tablewares melted-down in support of the war in 1689; see Clare Le Corbeiller, “Reflections on Court Taste in Early Saint-Cloud Porcelain,” in Versailles, French Court Style and Its Influence (Toronto, 1992), pp. 109–10.

26.For Saint-Simon’s account of Louis XIV’s audience for Méhémet Riza Beg (Mohammed Riza Bey) and accompanying notes on the visit, see Mémoires, vol. 13 [Boislisle’s vol. 25]. vol. 26, pp. 126–35; the arrangement of the court according to rank and privilege is described, including the position of the Crown Prince, “The Elector of Bavaria was in the second row with the ladies he had brought, while the Comte de Lusace, that is, the Electoral Prince of Saxony, was in that of the Princesse de Conti, the daughter of Monsieur le Prince.” [L’électeur de Bavière étoit sur le second gradin avec les dames qu’il avoit amenées, et le comte de Lusace, c’est-a-dire le prince électoral de Saxe, sur celui de la princesse de Conti fille de Monsieur le Prince.] (p. 132).

27.Jean-Baptiste Colbert jeune (1665–1746).

28.Extrait De la Relation 63. de Mr. de Suhm, datée, à Paris le 31e. May, 1715

Le 28e. du Mois Monseigneur le Comte de Lusace fut à Marly prendre Congé du Roy T.C. aprez avoir diné chez Mr. le Marquis de Torcy, il alla dans le Cabinet du Roy Luy faire un beau Compliment, S.M. Luy en fit de même et l’ Entretint long tems, Il Luy donna de Sa propre main une belle et magnifique Epée, estimée cinquante mille Ecus, et ensuite Il L’embrassa et Le congédia; les manieres de S.M. en cette occasion furent si affectionées et si gratieuses que tous ceux qui en furent témoins en ont êté charmez; De là Monsgr. le Comte de Lusace prit Congé de Madame la Duchesse de Berry, de Madame, de Monsr. et Mad. la Duchesse d’Orleans, et autres Princesses, Madame la Duchesse de Berry Luy prepara un Jeu au Salon où Elle fit les honneurs, Elle L’invita ensuite a la promenade, accompagnée de toutes les Dames et on joüa les Eaux part tout oü Elle Le mena, on alla rencontrer le Roy au Jeu du Mail, on retourna au Salon pour joüer, et Monsgr. le Comte de Lusace en sortit et alla coucher à Versailles où le Lendemain au matin Il prit Congé de Mr. le Dauphin et vit ensuite les Eaux de Versailles et de Trianon, Il revint le Soir à Paris, et partira bien tôt pour faire un tour dans le Royaume. HStA, Loc. 758, vol. 5, fol. 88 a,b. For Saint-Simon’s account, see Mémoires, vol. 13 [Boislisle, vol. 25], vol. 26, pp. 119–220. Louis XIV also sent Augustus the Strong a gift of six horses with saddles of silver embroidery and trim and fitted with holsters for pistols bearing portraits of the King; see Unter einer Krone, exh. cat., Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden (Leipzig, 1997), pp. 200–201, nos. 310, 311.

29.HStA, Loc. 758, vol. 5, fol. 108a.

30.The preference of the French king and his son for this sort of porcelain is documented by Sir Francis Watson and John Whitehead, “An Inventory Dated 1689 of the Chinese Porcelain in the Collection of the Grand Dauphin, Son of Louis XIV, at Versailles” in Journal of the History of Collections 3, no. 1 (1991), pp. 13–52.

31.According to entries in the Inventarium … 1721 (Porzellansammlung, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, inv. no. 324), porcelains were acquired from “Mlle. Bassetouch” in 1721, “Mademoiselle de Croogh” in 1723, “Valentin et Comp.” in 1725, ” Landsberger und Kell” in 1725, “Joel Elias Seekell” in 1725, “Mlle. Escherin” in 1723, and “Kaufmann Konspruck” in 1723. Raymond Le Plat, the King’s chief artistic advisor and court designer, acted as his agent in Paris for the purchase and shipment of porcelains, as well as important bronzes and paintings, in 1699 and 1715. See Holzhausen, “Die Bronzen …”, pp. 182–86. A specification from 1704 documenting the purchase of an enormous assortment of exotic goods in Amsterdam by Wolf Dietrich, Graf von Beichlingen (1665–1725) on the king’s behalf was published as an endnote to Karl Berling’s Meissener Porzellan und seine Geschichte (Leipzig, 1900) and includes several entries for ceramics described simply as porcelain or as “Delfftischen Porcellain.”

32.For an example, see The Splendor of Dresden: Five Centuries of Art Collecting (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1978), cat. nos. 356–57, pp. 46 and 174–75.

33.According to the Inventarium1721, the royal collection was enriched by gifts or purchases from members of the court as follows: in 1722, Kriegsrat Daniel Friedrich Raschke (d. 1722), Christoph August Reichsgraf von Wackerbarth (1662–1734), Waldemar von Löwendahl (also Woldemar von Löwendal; 1660–1740 ), Ursula Katharina von Boccum, Fürstin von Teschen (as the king’s mistress called Gräfin Lubomirska; 1680–1730), and Peter Robert Taparelli, Graf von Lagnasco (1659–1735); in 1723, Jakob Heinrich Graf Flemming (1667–1728), Raymond LePlat (1664–1742), and Ernst Christoph Graf von Manteuffel (1676–1749); and in 1724, “Chometowski, Woiwode von Masovien” (Chometowski, Woiwoden von Masuren).

34.See Friedrich Reichel, “Eine bürgerliche Porzellansammlung in augusteischen Dresden,” in Jahrbuch der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden, vol. 19 (Dresden, 1987), pp. 119–30.

35.“1. Würz büchse mit Deckel, inwendig vier Fachs, nebst zugehörigen zwey Saltz-Väßgen Franz. Porcell.” This specification belonging to the Porzellansammlung has no inventory number. The author is grateful to Dr. Friedrich Reichel, Dr. Ulrich Pietsch, director of the collection, and Anette Loesch for assistance with further research on the Raschke bequest. Reichel (ibid., p. 127) specifically notes the appearance of the spice box and saltcellars in the specification and suggests, based upon the description alone, that they were not Asian porcelain but might belong to the earliest Meissen manufactures; he makes no mention of the notation “Franz. Porcell.” and does not refer to the surviving spice box in the Porzellansammlung.

36.Augustus the Strong was responsible for the breakup of the electoral Kunstkammer and the formation of several specialized collections corresponding today to the departments of the Staatliche Kunstsammlungen. This resulted in the preparation of inventories for each new collection, including the Inventarium … 1721, the running catalogue of the ceramics collection and furnishings of the building now termed the Japanese Palace. The collection was classified as much as possible according to material, decoration, and type, with numbers and symbols painted or engraved on each piece corresponding to its category and position in the inventory. The first inventory is incomplete; two later inventories were compiled in 1770 and 1779. For further background and references to other literature, see M. Cassidy-Geiger, “The Japanese Palace Collections and Their Impact at Meissen,” published in 1995 in the handbooks to the International Ceramics Fair and Seminar (London) and the International Fine Art and Antique Dealers Show (New York). See also Monika Kopplin and Gisela Haase, “Sächßisch lacquirte Sachen,” exh. cat., Museum für Lackkunst (Münster, 1998), pp. 81– 83.

37.“N. 72. Eine blau u. weiße runde Würzbüchse mit einem dergl. Deckel mit einem saubergemahlten Knöpfchen. 2 1/2. Z. hoch 4 3/ 4. Z. in diam. N. 73. 2: Stk. runde codronierte Saltzfäßgen. 2 Z. hoch. 3 ½ Z. weit.” Inventarium . . . 1721, p. 547.

38.A brief discussion of the history of this factory and its manufactures is supplied by Régine de Plinval de Guillebon in the published lecture “La porcelaine tendre à Paris au XVIIIe siècle,” French Porcelain Society 11 (1994), pp. 3–5, 18–22, and fig. 3. The spice box was first published in Anette Loesch, Die Napoleonische schenkung, 1809, exh. cat., Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden (Dresden, 1992), cat. no. 76, p. 66.

39.“Japanisch Porcelain; Krack Porcelain; Weiß Chinesisch Porcelain; Grün Chinesisch Porcelain; Roth Chinesisch Porcelain; Blau und weiß Ost-Indisch Porcelain; Weiß, Sächßisch Porcelain; Braun Sächs. Porcelain; Terra Sigillata; Schwartz Porcelain; Delffter Guth.; Thonen Gefäße mehrertheils von Raphael Urbino gemahlt.” Inventarium … 1721.

40.Not red-body wares but white porcelain with fired or cold-enamel decoration in red.

41.Black-glazed porcelain and stoneware.

42.See Gerda Weinholz, “Aus der Majolikasammlung des Museums für Kunsthandwerk,” in Jahrbuch der Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden (Dresden, 1965–66), pp. 124–25 and fig. 4.

43.A category for French porcelain was created in 1809 within the Inventarium vom Chur. Fürstl. Saechssischen Hollaendtl. Palais zu Neustadt bey Dressden, begun in 1779 (vol. 5: Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, inv. no. 334); this was to accommodate the Sèvres porcelains presented in that year by Napoleon. See Loesch, Die Napoleonische. For more on the red-body wares in the Japanese Palace and other early collections, manufactured in Holland, the German states, and Mexico, see M. Cassidy-Geiger, “Forgotten Sources for Early Meissen Figures,” American Ceramic Circle Journal 10 (1997), pp. 55–72.

44.For further details, see Loesch, Die Napoleonische, cat. no. 74, p. 65.

45.“N., 184. Ein do [for ‘ditto’] 7. Z, hoch und 4. Z: in diam.” Inventarium …1721, p. 419.

46.“N.: 183. Neun Oval runde Milchkrüge mit eingedrückten Schnüzgen und Henckeln. 7. Z: hoch und 4. Z. in diam.” Ibid., p. 419.

47.Rudolphe Lepke’s Kunst-Auctions-Haus, Porzellan/ Gemälde Elfenbeinskulpturen Waffen aus den Sächsischen Staatssammlungen­Johanneum-Grünes Gewölbe-Gemäldegalerie-in Dresden (sale cat.), 12 Oct . 1920, lots 949–50, p. 51 and pl. 45.

48.Loesch, Die Napoleonische, cat. no. 75, p. 65. The teapot appears in Geneviève Le Duc and Régine de Plinval de Guillebon, “Contribution à l’étude de la manufacture de faïence et de porcelaine de Saint-Cloud pendant ses cinquante premières années,” Keramik-Freunde der Schweiz, Bulletin des Amis Suisses de la Céramique, no. 105 (March 1991), pl. 6 and cover.

49.Nineteenth-century guides to the porcelain collection in Dresden note chiefly the Vincennes bouquet mounted in gilt-bronze, with pendant figures, presented to the king in 1749 by his daughter, Maria-Josepha, wife of the Dauphin, and the Sèvres porcelains sent by Napoleon in 1809; see Gustav Klemm, Die königlich sächsische Porzellan-Sammlung (Dresden, 1834); idem, Die königlich sächsische Porzellan-und Gefässe-Sammlung … (Dresden, 1841); and Führer durch die königlichen Sammlungen zu Dresden (Dresden, 1889). These porcelains are illustrated and discussed by Loesch, Die Napoleonische, cat. nos. 1–49, pp. 20–51.

50.This information was kindly provided by Dr. Ulrike Grimm. The earliest known reference to the moutardiers (inv. no. 5133–5136) and handles (inv. no. 6829–6835) is in the Schloßinventar Favorite compiled in 1893, though it is understood that they were acquired in the eighteenth century, presumably during the margravine’s lifetime.

51.An weiß Porcellain von St. Clous

Eine Terrine mit dem Deckel und zwey Henckel.

Eine Dito ohne Deckel, aber mit zwey Henckel.

Zwey dergleichen, aber kleiner.

Zwey noch dergleichen etwas kleiner.

Zwey Suppen-Schälgens.

Zwey Bechergens mit Füssen.

Zwey hohe Tassen mit Deckels.

Zwey Saltz-Fässer.

Ein klein Krügchen mit einem Deckel.

Eine Suppen-Schale mit Deckel und Teller.

Eine Lampe. HStA PK, I. HA, Rep. 21. Nr. 192 (Monbijou), Fasz. 14; Inventarium von Ihro Majestät der Konigin/ Meubles und Sachen in dem Schloß in Dero Garten Monbijoux/ 1738. I am grateful to Dr. Thomas Kemper for this reference. For a brief history of Monbijou, see Kemper, “Das Hohenzollern-Museum Schloß Monbijou,” Museums-Journal (Berlin) 12. no. 33 (July 1998) , pp.9–13.

52.Nirgends, so viel als mir wissend, ist das Ost-Indische Porcellain in Europa besser nachgeahmt worden, als wie zu St. Clou, nahe bei Paris noch bis dato geschiehet; die Gefäße sind sehr dünne, durchsichtig und klingend, schön weiß, mit licht und dunkelblau nett bemahlet, und so harte, dass es wie das Orientalische Feuer schläget und Glas schneidet; ausser dass es auch dem Entzweyspringen unterworffen seyn soll. Nach der Zeit hat der berühmte Herr van Tschirnhausen in Dressden, dem damaligen Herrn Baron Bötticher eine Methode eröffnet, wie man auch allda könnte dem Sinesischen gleichendes Porcellain machen; welches dieser auch aus einer geschwemmten aschfarbigten Land Erde, wie selbige umlängst von einem guten Freund erhalten, zu Stande gebracht, nur dass die Gefässe weißer oder milchigter fallen, auch etwas undurchsichtiger seyn; doch sollen sie in der Härte selbst das veritable übertreffen, weil die Facon von letzterem viel besser, die Auszierung, vornehmlich mit Gold viel höher, und die erhabenen Figuren viel sonderbarer, nurdass das Belegen mit Gold­Blätgen mehr Parade macht, als Dauer hat; da hingegen auf dem Orientalischen, worauf nur gemahlen Gold gestrichen, beständiger bleibet. Im Anfang ist auch dieses ganz weiss, wie in alten Zeiten das Sinesische, ehe sie die Farbe erfunden, gelassen worden, welches aber nun seit 5. oder 6. Jahren van Herrn Köhlern blau gemahlet wird, nicht aber mit Indigo, wie von dem Indianischen im Anfang allegierte Autors melden (weil es unmöglich, dass der Safft von einem Vegetabili das starke Feuer aushalten, und noch dazu eine blaue Farbe geben könne), sondern mit der feinesten Smalta; wie also auch P. d’Entrecolle in oben gegebenen Nachrichten eines harten Steines gedacht, woraus das schönste Blaue in Sina durch das Rösten ietzo zur Porcellain-Mahlerey gebracht wird, welches unfehlbar nichts anderes als ein Kobolt-haltendes Ertz seyn muss. Noch ist van dem Dressdnischen Porcellain zu melden , dass ietzo die Erde von dem groben Sande nicht so accurat, wie im Anfang, geschwemmt wird, welche Sand­Körngen denn dem Porcellain glashaffte oder helldurchsichtigte Fleckgen geben, die viel zum Zerspringen desselben contribuiren. In Wien soll nun ietzo auc schöner dergleichen Porcellain aus einer Erde van Debreczin in Ober-Ungarn verfertigt werden, der, wenn er dem Dressdner nicht vorzuziehen, doch gewiss gleichzuachten ist. Aller dieser kan in sonderheit in Dressden als auch allhier kunstlich ubermahlet, und die Farben eingebrennet werden, darauf in Bresslau erstlich Herr Preussler nur grau in grau oder schwarze Gemählde gemacht, ietzo aber verrichtet dieses Herr Pottengruber mit allen bunten Farben, und zwar in solcher Perfection, als es sonst niemals allhier geschehen warden. … In Delfft machet man zwar auch allerhand Gefässe, schon van langen Zeiten her, die dem äußerlichen Ansehen nach dem veritablen Porcellain ziemlich gleich sehen, es kommt aber eigentlicht dabey nur auf die Glasur an, denn inwendig ist und bleibet es Thon, hat auch weder Klang noch Durchsichtigkeit… . Sammlung van Natur- und Medicin-, wie auch hierzu gehörigen Kunst- und Literatur-Geschichte (Breslau and Leipzig, 1723), p. 428 ff., quoted in Schlesiens Vorzeit in Bild und Schrift, vol. 3 (1904), pp. 109–10.

53.French-style ornament such as the broderies in underglaze blue executed at Saint-Cloud was not typical of in-house decoration at Meissen, but it was favored by the lacquerers and goldsmiths in Dresden who decorated the earliest Meissen stoneware and porcelain before Höroldt’s arrival in 1720. It was also a leading style at the Du Paquier manufactory, founded in Vienna in 1719. Chinese vessels of porcelain or bronze were also the subject of decoration painted in underglaze­blue on porcelain from Saint-Cloud and, later, Meissen, although examples with this type of decoration are extremely rare.

54.The marriage of Maria Josepha of Saxony (1731–1767) to the Dauphin (1729–1765) in 1747 also strengthened relations between the two courts.

55.As early as 1709, Asian examples were supplied to the factory’s original premises in Dresden to serve as models. See Ingelore Menzhausen, Böttgersteinzeug Böttgerporzellan aus der Dresdener Porzellansammlung (Dresden, 1969), p. 21. Evidence that Chinese porcelain from the royal collections was used as a source for faience models appears in the Inventarium … 1721, p. 353 (Blau und Weiß- Ost Indisch-Porcelain): “Number 48. A center piece of 3 oblong, round bottles, with the same necks and recessed borders. All three pieces are damaged. 1 ell, 8 inches high and 9 inches interior diameter. His Imperial Majesty allowed [copies of] the bottles to be made of Eggebrecht Delft ware in June of 1722 and put them in the palace.” [N. 48. Ein Auffsaz von 3. länglichte runden Bouteillen, mit dergleichen Halsen und abgesetzten Rande alle 3. stk. sind sehr schadhafft. 1.E. 8. Z. hoch. Und 9: indiam./ dergl. bouteille haben Ihro Königl. Mayt. im Junio 1722 von Eckebrechten Delffter Guth verfertigen laßen u. in das Palais gegeben.] According to Anette Loesch, the Chinese vase (inv. no. P.O. 939) and its faience copy survive in the Porzellansammlung. Likewise, so-called Delftware, possibly Dutch or from the faience manufactories in Berlin or the Eggebrecht concern in Dresden, were sent to Meissen to serve as models for the painters; see Arnold and Diefenbach, Meissener Blaumalerei , pp. 29–30 . For examples of lacquering on Meissen wares, see Kopplin and Haase, Sächßisch, pp. 71–79. For examples of Irminger’s designs, see Rolf Sonnemann and Eberhard Wächtler, eds., Johann Friedrich Böttger (Stuttgart, 1982), figs. 174–94.

56.According to one record from 1726, the Meissen handles were modeled after examples in wood; see Arnold and Diefenbach, Meissener Blaumalerei, p. 50, n. 81. The first porcelain handles decorated in underglaze-blue were brought to market in October 1722 see ibid., p. 44. Over 900 knife handles were among the factory stock in the Dresden warehouse in 1729, and an equal number were in an order awaiting shipment to France in 1731; see Claus Boltz, “Hoym, Lemaire and Meissen,” Keramos, no. 88 (April 1980), especially pp. 25 and 74–75.

57.For an example of this model, known also through nineteenth-century copies, see Christie’s London, sale cat., 28 February 1994, p. 76, lot 246 (illustrated). For the altar garniture, see Rainer Rückert, “Neue Funde zur Wiener. Altargarnitur,” Keramos, no. 50 (October 1970), pp. 122–29.

58.Compare the various Lemaire orders and deliveries of wares for export to France with certain court orders and with the Meissen stock produced for local markets, inventoried in the Dresden warehouse, the documents dating 1729–30 and published by Boltz, “Hoym, Lemaire,” pp. 3–10 1. Tablewares deriving from French court tradition were ordered from Meissen for the decoration of the enlarged Japanese Palace, possibly as early as between 1728 and 1730, although the only surviving specification has been dated around 1736, but certain models, such as the Eiß-Töpffe (also called Eiß-Näpffe), derive from metalwork examples more typical of Augsburg than Paris; see Claus Boltz, “Japanisches Palais­Inventar 1770 und Turmzimmer-Inventar 1769,” Keramos, no. 153 (July 1996), pp. 3–118; Maureen Cassidy-Geiger, “Meissen Porcelain Ordered for the Japanese Palace, A Transcription of the Specification von Porcilan of 1736,” Keramos, no. 153 (July 1996), pp. 119–30.

59.Ample evidence is provided by the Livre-journal de Lazare Duvaux (Paris, 1873), which covers the period 1748 through 1758.

60.A thorough history of Lemaire’s short-lived venture was published by Boltz in “Hoym, Lemaire.” A summary of this article was published by M. Cassidy­Geiger in Keramos, no. 146 (1994), pp. 3–8. New information on Lemaire was presented by Geneviève Le Duc, “Rodolphe Lemaire et la manufacture de porcelaine de Meissen, style extrême-oriental ou goût francais?” Revue de l’Art, no. 116 (1997), pp 54–60.

61.The references to artichoke-style models appear in the documents published by Boltz, “ Hoym, Lemaire” Examples of these models are rare; of the two belonging to the Porzellansammlung in Dresden, one was published by Walcha, Meissen Porcelain, pl. 51.

62.Boltaz, “Hoym, Lemaire,” pp. 23–24.

63.… elle a fait un tel progres depuis deux ou trois ans, qu’on a envoye de Paris des Modèles, des dessins et des personnes intelligentes, qu’il en vient aujourd’hui quantité de pièces comparables à ce qui vient de plus beau de la Chine et du Japon, et communément de plus belles formes, les Figures, les Animaux , les Arbres, les Plantes et les Fleurs … mieux dessinés et plus de variétés et d’union dans les couleurs; les Reliefs Broderies et Ornemens sont traités avec beaucoup de symétrie, de précision et de gout; de telle sorte que les plus habiles connaisseurs sont souvent en deffaut, prenant cette nouvelle porcelaine pour l’ancienne, et souvent même lui donnant la préférence … On trouvera la preuve de la beauté des Ouvrages dont nous parlons à Paris même, rüe Dauphine, chez le sieur LeBrun, Marchand Bijoutier, intéressé a la Manufacure de Porcelaine de Dresde, qui en fait un grand débit et à un prix fort raisonnable, puisqu’il est à deux tiers de moins que celui des porcelaines des Indes. On y voit des pièces en hauteur, avec ornemens, et en couleurs, d’une grande beauté, des Pots à l’eau, à tabac, à pate, à sucre, en litron, et autres formes, des Plats, des Assiettes, Soucoupes, Drageoires, Tabatières, Tasses et Gobelets de diverses sortes; Ecuelles, Jattes couvertes à oglio etc. le tout souffrant la plue violente chaleur du feu, et même de la lessive bouillante… . Quoted by Le Duc in “Rodolphe Lemaire”, pp. 56–57.

64.For more on Huet, see Le Duc, “Rodolphe Lemaire”, p. 58.