Ink, Linen, Steel: Staging the Table in Europe, 1500–1800 reimagines spaces of display and performance in early modern Europe through examination of the material culture of the arts of the table.

The exhibition will focus on several sixteenth- and seventeenth-century manuals and handbooks, which contain instructions for carving meat and fruit and folding napkins, as well as directing table talk and other kinds of performance. Starting with Bartolomeo Scappi’s Opera di M. Bartolomeo Scappi, cuoco secreto di Papa Pio V (Venice, 1570, and after), the exhibition will also feature Vincenzo Cervio’s Il Trinciante (Rome, 1581, and after), Mattia Giegher’s Li Tre Trattati (Padua, 1629, and after), and Georg Philip Härsdoffer’s Vollständiges Trinicir-Büchlein (Nuremberg, 1640, and after). Surprisingly similar manuals were produced in Italian, French, German, English, Dutch, Spanish, and Swedish languages. This fact attests to a shared interest in staging the table and demonstrates one of the myriad ways in which knowledge was transferred across Europe.

While several of the texts are discussed in histories of manners and domestic service, they have not been mined for their significance for decorative arts or material culture studies. Many of them preserve evidence of mobile sculpture made of edible meats and shape-shifting textiles that defied material expectations. The illustrations depict a rich material culture of linen, starch, and steel that enables us to build out the world in which these texts were created and consumed. Examining the crisp folds of linen together with the exacting profiles of carefully-honed blades wielded by skilled artisan-carvers points to both the domestic and the military force of the table.

By showcasing the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century books together with period examples of the material culture of the table and credenza, including sets of carving tools, linen napkins and tablecloths, and playing cards, Ink, Linen, Steel and its accompanying catalogue will rematerialize the early modern table and shed light on the social and commercial networks that enabled this trans-national culture.


A Focus Project curated by Deborah L. Krohn, Associate Professor and Chair of Academic Programs, Bard Graduate Center. Focus Projects are part of an innovative program organized and led by faculty members or postdoctoral fellows through seminars and workshops that culminate in small-scale, academically rigorous exhibitions.

Support for Ink, Linen, Steel: Staging the Table in Europe, 1500–1800 has been provided by donors to Bard Graduate Center.