The use of carved hardstones, dating from antiquity to the nineteenth century, in various types of jewels and other valuable objects is one of the most striking features of the Castellani production.1 Yet their design and manufacture during the seventy-odd years of the workshop’s activity has not been analyzed in detail until now. In fact, superficial treatment of the topic has sometimes led to unreliable datings of such works. This essay represents a first attempt to document, with the support of archival material, the production of jewels with engraved stones, whether ancient or of later periods, and to examine the dealings the Castellani had with contemporary Roman gem carvers.2

The Castellani made use of ancient, Renaissance, and modern intaglios and cameos for their jewels. Engraved stones had been used in jewels of the ancient world and of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, all of which inspired the Castellani. In addition the creation of cameos and intaglios had constituted one of the finest and most vital expressions of Roman artistic craftsmanship in the eighteenth century, celebrated and admired all over Europe. This craft enjoyed renewed success in the nineteenth century, when the Castellani acquired ancient stones coming on the market as well as new works of exclusively Roman “modern” engravers.3 They encouraged and supported this new production as part of their commitment to reinvigorate and promote Roman artistic traditions.

Court styles in Napoleonic France breathed new life into the production of cameos and intaglios at the beginning of the nineteenth century. As shown in portrait paintings, Empress Josephine Bonaparte and the princesses of the French imperial house set a new fashion trend by wearing splendid parures set with cameos and intaglios, in addition to those with sparkling faceted stones.4 According to French goldsmith and jewelry historian Eugène Fontenay, “Cameos were much in style during the first Empire, they wore them everywhere.”5 Unlike earlier work, however, cameos of the nineteenth century, which were intended almost exclusively for jewelry, were larger, more colorful, and often carved with subjects inspired by modern sculpture. The Castellani’s choice of engraved gems, in particular of large monochrome cameos, also responded to the demands for strong color to complement their gold settings, especially from the 1850s onward.

In the 1830s the creation of intaglios and cameos in hardstone was jeopardized by the increased production of carved seashells, which were cheaper and easier to manufacture.6 To the uneducated eye, shells could approximate the effect of hardstone cameos when set into rich parures. Nonetheless, at least until the mid-1850s, some of the most renowned Roman engravers, including successful medalists, remained active: Giuseppe Girometti, Giuseppe Cerbara, Nicola Morelli, Luigi Pichler in Rome; and Benedetto Pistrucci, with his heritage of Roman culture and tradition, in London. Augusto Castellani summarized the situation:

Since ancient intaglios were much sought after, at the beginning of this century not a few artists devoted themselves to falsifying them: and that was the occasion that a bit later there arose excellent Italian engravers, such as Calandrelli, Pistrucci, Girometti, Picker [sic] and many others. These, with their works, emulated the ancients and were artists whose names will live as long as the cameos which they carved. But now the tradition they founded is already in decline, and if the rich will not refrain from wanting hard[stone] cameos for miserable prices, we can foresee that soon this [art] will cease completely.7

This decline was exacerbated by the general economic crisis associated with ongoing political and military events. These culminated in the formation of the Kingdom of Italy (1861) and the proclamation of Rome as its capital (1870). During this time the Castellani, especially Fortunato Pio and Augusto, strove to maintain and improve the engravers’ art, with much success. Unsettled times in Italy recur toward the end of the century and are well documented in Augusto’s memoirs. Coupled with changes in fashion, they eventually forced the closing of the Castellani workshop by Augusto’s son, Alfredo.

Acquisitions and Trade of Intaglios and Cameos

The Castellani purchased a variety of worked stones—ancient ones from excavations, others made in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and modern ones almost continuously, beginning about 1829, at a time when there was less interest in this type of acquisition. There were peak moments when they purchased in quantity, such as in 1839 when they acquired “from Sig. Raffaele Patini two hundred carved stones set in gold.”8 They sometimes even seemed intent on raking in everything on the market. There are not only single purchases and small groups, but also entire collections of cameos and engraved stones, two of which are listed in the Castellani financial records for April 1859 (without provenance).9 After 1860 Alessandro frenetically acquired jewels and cameos, many of which he handed over to his brother Augusto for the shop, while others went back on the market.

There was also an element of competition to these purchases. Count Michael Tyskiewicz, a major figure in the European antiquarian market in the second half of the century, had settled in Rome in 1865. In his memoirs, published years later, in 1896, he wrote tellingly of the antiquities trade in Rome and Alessandro Castellani’s involvement in it, although his text must be taken with a grain of salt. He described his secret acquisition, through the dealer Francesco Martinetti, of the historic gem collection of the Boncompagni Ludovisi, princes of Piombino, noting the furtive circumstances and precautions he took to keep this from Alessandro. According to Tyskiewicz, “to the day of his death Castellani knew nothing about the sale of the collection of which I have been speaking, and I, on my part, took good care to say nothing about it, still less to show it to him, as I had made up my mind not to part with the gems.”10

Fortunato Pio acquired and sent batches of engraved stones to other jewelers and merchants in Italy and beyond; at times he ordered stones for resale to be made by carvers. Two such shipments are particularly significant; the first was in 1835. On April 14 Fortunato Pio corresponded with a “Mons. F. Bautte” in Florence, with whom he had had many business dealings. He wrote: “concerning cameos there are none with relief engraving. There is however a group of those engraved as intaglios, being worked on at this moment, and next Saturday I will dispatch the samples.”11 Four days later, on April 18, he confirmed: “I send 7 cameos in onyx in relief which cost 10 paoli a piece, and sixteen carved onyxes and they cost 80 baj[occhi] each. You will see that they are very well made. If you wish to have them in quantity you have only to command me and you will be served immediately.”12 Fortunato Pio’s orders to engravers were sometimes for stock items, not necessarily for specific commissions.

The second shipment occurred three years later, in 1838, when Fortunato Pio acquired an important group of cameos for Alfred Megassier of Paris. These were carefully packed in a chest and sent to France on the evening of October 27 “sur la corniche à Marseille” (on the coast road to Marseille), care of one Louis Bozoimer, together with other pieces already in Castellani’s possession.13 The shipment consisted of a considerable number of items. Many of them were by known engravers and were carefully listed with the names of the makers and an indication of the subject. These included pieces by the gem-carver Francesco Frediani: two sets composed of nine cameos each in hardstone, other cameos depicting the head of Jupiter, the figure of a faun, the head of Apollo, the bust of Lucius Verus, the head of Alexander, a “very large” head of Augustus, an “oversized” head of Hera, the head of Pindar, head of Ceres, head of Psyche, and head of Canova’s Perseus; another jewel set with twenty cameos and others depicting a Muse, a bacchante, Augustus crowned with rose laurel, the head of Diomedes, and the head of Marcus Agrippa.14 There were also cameos by Antonio Vergé depicting a bacchante, Night, Flora, and Jupiter.15 In addition there was “an envelope with ten cameos representing Apollo and the nine Muses by Pistrucci,” as well as four cameos “which are the property of the Castellani” (among them a cameo by Giovanni Pichler) and “24 separate cameos of seashell of various sizes acquired from Sig. Giovanni Dies.”16 Of these, two names stand out: Giovanni Pichler, the greatest engraver of the eighteenth century, and Benedetto Pistrucci, another well-known engraver.17 The other names are rather obscure: Dies furnished cameos to Castellani on at least three other occasions, and Vergé supplied Fortunato Pio with a portrait of the newly elected Pope Pius IX in 1847.18 Another important consignment, which included a remarkable number of coral cameos, was recorded in 1840 for a “Sig. Bonly Dini of Paris,” who then owed Castellani a considerable sum for two large groups of cameos and engraved stones.19

Ancient and Modern Scarabs

The use of ancient stones from excavations is an essential characteristic of Etruscan-revival jewels. Necklaces in particular were made with scarabs, mostly in carnelian (but also in onyx), many of which were of the “a globolo” type dating to the third to second centuries B.C., although there are also even older scarabs from the sixth century B.C.20 Scarabs were regularly acquired in great quantity on the antiquities market from quality merchants who also traded in engraved stones. ln 1842 Fortunato Pio purchased ancient scarabs from Pietro Mari; in 1847 he acquired forty from Francesco Depoletti for 40 scudi and twenty-two from Gregorio Diotallevi; in 1851 he bought eighty-seven from Giuseppe Baseggio, a “Roman merchant of proven reputation,” for 40 scudi.21 In 1855-56 the acquisitions were numerous and frequent (at least four between July and December of 1856), often consisting of many small groups. Single examples were especially abundant in 1858-59, years in which, interestingly, jewels with mosaic and scarabs clearly outnumbered those with cameos and engraved stones.22

After 1870, while the purchase of cameos remained steady, as did specific commissions to engravers, acquisitions of scarabs gradually declined. By this time they had become somewhat scarce on the market. Augusto commented in his Discorso (1862):

Ancient Etruscan, Greek, and Roman scarabs are at present very rare, and therefore their high price impelled the moderns to counterfeit them. And they so perfected this trade that the most experienced eye can barely discover the deception. It is not the stone, not the polishing, not the engraving, but a certain sweet and soft appearance which makes them recognizable as antiques; and then only by those who have studied such kinds of work for long years, and because of trade or some other reason, have seen and handled many of them.23

The production of modern scarabs required by Castellani, however, had not always been intended to deceive, but rather had been created to complete series of ancient scarabs purchased on the antiquities market and used in jewels such as necklaces and bracelets.24 For each of the celebrated parures, which constituted the pride of the Castellani production, a minimum of thirty scarabs was needed (twenty to twenty-five for the necklaces, up to fifteen for a bracelet, and others for rings, earrings, and pins).25 Examples include the necklace, fibula, and bracelet made in 1857 for “Madama Story,” or the “parure of Etruscan scarabs in carnelian composed of necklace, bracelet, earrings, and fibula” made in 1865.26 The firm thus required a reasonable stock of scarabs of every type and dimension, ready to be used as the occasion demanded. In one case, for example, the inventory for June 16, 1850, included, in addition to the scarabs already mounted as jewels: “35 modern scarabs, 32 antique carnelian scarabs, 23 scarabs in antique carnelian, 24 scarabs in antique carnelian, 52 mediocre scarabs, 4 large scarabs, 82 ordinary scarabs, 5 large ordinary scarabs, 15 large modern scarabs.”27

The use of scarabs in jewelry was not universally applauded. A conmentator on the International Exhibition of 1862 in London wrote in the Jewellers’, Goldsmiths, Silversmiths’, and Watchmakers’ Monthly Magazine:

[T]he jewellers did their best to rob the scarabaei of their repulsiveness; and if it cannot be said that the scarabs added to the beauty of the bracelets and rings in which they were set, it must be allowed by all who examine the reproductions of signor Castellani, that the Etruscan jewellers, by the magnificence of their settings, managed to make tolerable even the repulsive, ill-carved beetle stones, the material emblems of a groveling heathen mystery.28

After the great successes of the 1850s and 1860s, linked to the affair surrounding the Campana collection, the production of jewels with scarabs may not have been as rich and diverse, but even so it lasted for a long time, particularly as simple scarab pins and earrings. In October 1888, for example, Wilhelm II of Germany on a visit to Rome acquired “a bracelet with four Etruscan scarabs, and two hairpins with the head of Juno for the Empress.”29

Ancient and Renaissance Cameos and Intaglios

Because of their scarcity, ancient cameos and intaglios of very fine quality were not used as frequently as scarabs. The most prized examples, those with highly original and symbolic depictions, were used singly for brooches, pendants, rings, and buttons. Otherwise, the most readily available ancient stones were the many little intaglios in hardstone–carnelian, jasper, ameythst, crystal, nicola (a kind of onyx)—and glass pastes of the Roman period, found in great quantity in the sands of the Tiber. They were densely set in gold necklaces and bracelets including those of complex design to obtain a pleasing multicolor effect. The stones were combined without regard to their tiny representations, which were generally mythological and lent no specific meaning for the jewel as a whole. This was in contrast to the Castellani production of jewels with small, modern engraved gems imitating the ancient ones, for which the gem engraver used the same type of stone and followed a theme. Examples include garnets with tiny cupids and nicolos with figures of deities, which were used in two important necklaces, or a pair of bracelets set with intaglios with the signs of the zodiac carved in the appropriate birthstone for each sign.30

Castellani purchases of intaglios and cameos from excavations were registered over the years, and the age of the stone, when known, was always specified. This type of identification in the record books is rare, however, suggesting a certain difficulty in dating the artifact. As late as 1891 Augusto offered a client in Boston some carved carnelians for rings, sending casts in sealing wax, but, in spite of the experience which he had gained by then, he could not ascertain their antiquity.31 The same thing occurred for stones of later periods, especially cameos thought to be of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, which seem to have been more prized than those from excavations. The 1850 inventory listed: “50 cameos of the XV century some of them very beautiful; 149 hardstone cameos of the XV century some of them very beautiful.” There was also “a parure of cameos XV century set in gold for duke Grazioli” as well as a “garniture of cameos of the XVI century set [with] enamels and jewels”.32 Although provenance is not indicated, it is likely that many of these were owned by the aristocracy who, as is well documented by the registers in the Castellani archive, brought family jewels to the Castellani shop to be repaired, altered, remounted, or even exchanged for other works (see chap. 3).

Modern Cameos and Intaglios by Roman Engravers

Modern Roman cameos and intaglios, however, rather than ancient ones, truly defined the Castellani production, at times more strongly than others. Augusto Castellani, especially in the second half of the century, encouraged and supported the production of carved gems. By means of ongoing commissions to the engravers, the Castellani were able to sideline the use of seashells, but production in shell was still much in demand in the years 1833-38 (as the numerous cameos listed in the registers attest).33 Jewels with cameos in turquoise, coral, “Naples lava,” “turquoise [glass] paste,” and malachite are also mentioned, but from about 1857-58 onward the references to modest cameos in shell are extremely rare.34 This was not the case with other gem carvers who used shell fairly routinely to produce quick portraits of foreign visitors whose numbers increased and came to include tourists from the United States. This production made the fortune of many engravers such as Tommaso and Luigi Saulini, and Paolo and Luigi Neri. Their studios were located in Via del Babuino, near the most prestigious hotels in Rome, along the main route from the north, by which travelers entered the city at Porta del Popolo.35 The Saulini became especially renowned for their portraiture, first in hardstone but later almost exclusively in shell.36 Although Castellani did not make extensive use of Saulini cameos, Alessandro is known to have visited the Saulini workshop in 1860. A shell portrait of Ellen Walters (née Harper), wife of William T. Walters, by one of the Saulini, was set by Castellani in a simple gold frame.37 Another piece, a “cameo taken from Saulini,” is registered in the Castellani daybook for 1856.38 The Saulini may also have carved some of the “cameos in seashell” after the celebrated marble reliefs, Day and Night, by Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen, and after Raphael’s Madonna of the Chair, all of which occasionally appear in the registers.39

The Castellani gave special commissions to other gem carvers. Some of these were well known and successful on their own; others are obscure, their names lost in time. Their payments are listed with the payments “to the pietraro,” an artisan who prepared the stone for the engraver.40 The generic phrase “to the engraver,” whose name is rarely given, raises the possibility that at least in some cases the maker may have been a worker employed by the Castellani as a metal engraver. “Engraver” could indicate someone who cut the initials and coats of arms on silverware and carved designs into stamping tools or seals. These could be in metal (for which the well-known name of the Pasinati often recurred) or hardstone, as in the special case of gem carver Antonio Odelli (see below).41 The hints that emerge from the Castellani registers, while brief, are also precious for evaluating the economic worth of the individual engravers who seem to have been paid, at least in some periods, on a weekly basis, as was Giorgio Antonio Girardet.42 It is not yet clear if some of them actually worked directly in the Castellani shop. Names of engravers do not appear in the registers of workers (or at least they have not yet been identified), but in February 1859 expenses for a “bench for engraving” were recorded.43 Some, however, such as Odelli and the Sirletti brothers (Giovanni, Pietro, and Gaetano), had their own studios in the immediate vicinity of the Castellani premises in Via Poli and Piazza di Trevi.

The works expressly commissioned by the Castellani are identifiable by the double C engraved on the background of the obverse or on the reverse of the stone. It is not clear if this had always been required or if they began to cut a maker’s mark at a specific time. The conditions agreed upon for a commission are similarly unclear; for example, who furnished the stone? The Castellani mark appears on a variety of cameos and intaglios: cameos in the Twelve Caesars series used for bracelets; a sapphire cameo with the head of Medusa; an intaglio in agate with the depiction of an actor mounted in an Etruscan-style ring; a cameo with a horseman in battle, copied from a stone in the famous Marlborough collection; cameos in three-layer sardonyx, one with the bust of Constantine and another with the bust of an empress, in identical gold mounts as brooches (perhaps executed as a pair); a cameo in chalcedony with a full-face, laurel crowned bust of Julius Caesar; an intaglio on chalcedony with a profile possibly of Emperor Augustus; and the twenty-five little nicolos with figures of deities for a necklace and pair of earrings.44

Two notable cameos in sapphire also display the Castellani mark. The first depicts a frontal seated female figure, once interpreted as Cybele, but now possibly identified as a personification of Italy, which appears several times in the registers as “sapphire Italia.”45 The second cameo, showing a figure of Charity and mounted in a very simple gold brooch, is the work of Giorgio Antonio Girardet. A replica of this is also documented, slightly different in dimensions and form, marked by the usual double C as well as the full signature of the engraver.46 This unusual double identification is known only for a few works by Girardet. He also signed a cameo in two layers of sardonyx with Venus and Cupid mounted in a gold pin with small cabochon sapphires and cameos showing Jupiter and Medusa.47

Compared with the number of stones that passed through the Castellani workshop and the number of engravers active in Rome in the nineteenth century (in some periods at least eighty), very few of them are actually documented by signatures on the stones or by records in the Castellani registers.48 Those linked with certainty to Castellani jewels may be divided roughly into two groups. In the first are known engravers who worked entirely or partly before the time of the Castellani’s concentrated effort to promote carved stones in their work. Castellani may not necessarily have commissioned specific work from these carvers, but rather acquired gems by them over the years for the prestige of the creators. The second group consisted of those contemporary carvers, many of them still anonymous or little known, whose work may not always have been of the highest quality but who were nonetheless specifically commissioned by Castellani.

The earlier group includes very few of the great carvers of the eighteenth century, and references to them in the registers are scarce. “The famous Giovanni Pichler,” for instance, is recorded only once, in 1839, for a cameo with the head of Julius Caesar.49 Antonio Pazzaglia signed a large cameo in agate with Mars and Venus which was among the jewels that came to Villa Giulia.50 Another eighteenth-century engraver, the little known Bartolomeo Garavini, is also listed.51 Still others in this first group were members of the prestigious Accademia di San Luca, including Nicola Morelli, who was admitted together with Giuseppe Cerbara and Giuseppe Girometti in 1812, Luigi Pichler, and Benedetto Pistrucci. Morelli was famous for his elegant cameos with portraits of members of the Bonaparte family.52 He is represented by a cameo with Hebe mounted in gold with griffins and one with Napoleon mounted as a pin in a frame with laurel leaves.53

Engraver Antonio Berini left Rome and successfully relocated in Milan in the beginning of the nineteenth century. The Castellani register for 1860 records a cameo by him with Hercules, mounted with thirty-six diamond brilliants.54 Berini also signed an agate cameo with a bust of Apollo, derived from the famous statue in the Belvedere Court of the Vatican.55 Another piece, a rock crystal carved with the sea-born Venus, is also signed and is typical of this kind of work. It was expertly mounted by Castellani in a relatively simple pin that perfectly complements the stone. Enamel in black and white has been combined with gold and a closed mount containing a special black background to illuminate the image.56

Giovanni Pichler’s younger half-brother, Luigi, was one of the most talented engravers, much admired by rulers and popes. He is suggested as the “Pickler” who is credited (without a first name) with several intaglios in the Castellani registers: a topaz mounted in a ring, a large carnelian with three heads mounted in a bracelet, an onyx engraved with a depiction of a vase, an emerald mounted as a pin, and a rock crystal with a head of Medusa, which was mentioned in the 1883 register.57 The Medusa rock crystal is probably the intaglio with a slightly convex surface enclosed in a pin with a gold mounting of scrolls and with a tear-shaped amethyst pendant, now at Villa Giulia. Pichler had a preference for intaglio work, and this Medusa is among his finest. He also carved portraits of contemporaries and subjects derived from classical mythology.58 His international renown led to his appointment by Count Metternich in 1818 to teach at the Viennese Academy of Fine Arts, which he did until 1850.

A cameo with Flora by Angelo Antonio Amastini appears in the Castellani inventory of 1865, and another with the same subject is listed as “Fibula cameo Flora” in the years 1894, 1896, 1897, and 1901-5; there is also a cameo with Arethusa mounted in a brooch listed in 1904-5.59 The name “Mastini” (without a first name) also appears in the registers, but may indicate another engraver not yet identified with certainty and perhaps active at a later period.60 He is credited with several cameos–one for a “portable altar,” others with stork and snake, and with Napoleon I.61

Works of two of the greatest engravers in hardstone and finest medalists of the first half of the nineteenth century – Benedetto Pistrucci and Giuseppe Girometti – are represented in the Castellani production. Pistrucci, who moved permanently to London in 1815 where he was appointed chief medalist at the Royal Mint in 1828, engraved a cameo with Leda and the swan mounted in a simple pin and the series of ten cameos depicting Apollo and the nine Muses, which were in the large shipment previously mentioned, sent by Fortunato Pio to Megassier in France in 1838.62

Girometti is more evident in the Castellani production, his presence almost taken for granted, since he was the most prominent engraver in Rome and had been honored with a funerary monument in the church of Santa Maria del Popolo.63 He and Giuseppe Cerbara were jointly appointed Engraver of the Pontifical Mint in 1822. Only his portrait cameo of George Washington is today firmly documented in a signed Castellani jewel,64 but his name appears several times in the registers in connection with other works. Cameos by Girometti were mounted with surrounds of brilliants, a cameo with Cupid was inserted in a bulla or pendant (1882), a “cameo jewel Girometti” with brilliants and little balls or drops appears in the inventories for 1883-85, and a brooch with “Amore” from 1889 until 1904.65 Giuseppe Cerbara is also found in a document in the Castellani archive: “Gold Bulla, set with a topaz intaglio representing the Roman Medusa: the intaglio is by signor Cerbara of Rome. In the possession of count Tieskiewitz [sic].”66

The Castellani both commissioned work and bought readymade pieces from a variety of contemporary gem carvers, not just from the top ranks, including Antonio Odelli, Giorgio Antonio Girardet, Giovanni Dies and also the brothers Giovanni, Pietro, and Gaetano Sirletti, Antonio Vergé, Francesco Frediani, Stefano and Vincenzo Teoli, and Pietro and Gregorio De Santis. 67 Even today most of these engravers are practically unknown, but they gain greater visibility from a review of documents in the Castellani archives. For example, on May 17, 1847, an otherwise unknown Luigi Bochioli signed a receipt for payment, for a double-sided cameo in blood-colored jasper. 68 In this case nothing more has been found as yet in the archives, but in other cases a great deal more comes to light.

Antonio Odelli’s name recurs with greatest frequency in the Castellani documents. He was one of the few engravers active in Rome in 1841 to be included in Hawks Le Grice’s guide to the city’s sculpture workshops published that year.69 His studio moved several times, but by 1856 it was located in Via Rasella close to the early Castellani shop in Via Poli (opened in 1854) and the firm’s later showrooms at Piazza di Trevi (opened in 1869).70

The archives reveal a close, longtime relationship between Odelli and the Castellani-first with Fortunato Pio, later with Augusto-enduring almost forty years. Beginning in the 1830s Odelli was paid for engraving coats of arms and monograms both on hardstone and metal.71 A “seal with a hardstone handle garnished with gold” with a coat of arms engraved by Odelli is among the objects that appear in the lawsuit Prince Filippo Andrea Doria Pamphilj filed against Fortunato Pio, in which he contested the high cost of the jewels prepared for the prince’s wedding to Mary Altea Talbot, daughter of the Earl of Shrewsbury, in 1839.72

Odelli is also the creator of many works in hardstone that remain difficult to identify because his signature is rarely found on known pieces to date.73 In 1834 and 1835 he was commissioned by Fortunato Pio to create two cameos in “black stone” with a tortoise for Onorato Martucci of Naples. At the same time, as a trusted engraver he was consulted about the execution and asked for an estimate for engraving in agate a small statue about 8½ inches (22 cm) high for the same client.74 Owing to the difficulty of the work for which the client wanted to pay very little, Castellani gave the commission to the Roman engraver Gregorio De Santis, then living in Florence, who had already made “twelve small busts representing the portraits of the twelve Caesars” for Castellani. But when De Santis’s cost estimate was also considered excessive, the execution of the work was suspended.75

Augusto Castellani singled out Odelli for praise, noting the high quality of his work. He had hired Odelli to copy an antique cameo in sapphire with the bust of Roman Emperor Vespasian that, according to him, was discovered on the Via Appia. He wrote: “I had it copied on a blue quartz by the outstanding Odelli, a skillful Roman cutter, whose work it seemed to me turned out excellently, but the artist assured me that quartz cut badly because the substance lacked homogeneity. I had the same man cut two large blue corundums [sapphires], and on those the work came out stupendously finished, because it resisted the tool better.”76

Two of Odelli’s creations can be identified with some certainty as a cordierite cameo with Vespasian and a light blue chalcedony cameo, which was illustrated in the 1930 catalogue of items sold in Rome from the estate of Alfredo Castellani; both also relate to some notes in the registers from 1889.77 The sapphire, once thought to be the actual excavated stone mentioned by Augusto, is more likely to have been copied from a chalcedony cameo of the same subject in Florence in the grandducal collection.78 This image had been widely circulated via printed engravings and impressions and was already well known to hardstone engravers in the eighteenth century.79 The other cameo design probably derived from the same source.

Other work by Odelli listed in the Castellani registers includes: an intaglio with the head of Mars for a seal “for Sig. Rothschild” (1846), a “sacred cameo” mounted in a brooch (1864), a cameo with Hercules in an armband (1864), and an unidentified piece acquired in 1858 by Prince Lautberg.80 Among the extant pieces by Odelli there is a cameo with a bust of Flora in emerald mounted in an enameled gold pin with griffins and an emerald drop, and very likely a brooch with a cameo depiction of the rape of Persephone which is in the 1904 inventory and was probably the one sold at auction in Rome in 1930.81

Giorgio Antonio Girardet also appears several times in the Castellani registers. His work was characteristic of the new direction Augusto took with this type of production in the second half of the century. Girardet’s relationship with the Castellani workshop must have begun through Odelli, for whom Girardet had initially worked.82 Girardet sometimes worked on commission but also received a weekly payment from Castellani. He marked his works with the double C, sometimes also signing them with his name. This arrangement suggests a privileged relationship with the firm. Although his name does not appear in the registers in relation to objects, but only to payments, he was certainly responsible for a sapphire intaglio commemorating the 1887 battle of Dogali, and cameos with Charity, Jupiter, and Venus and Cupid. The bust of Queen Margherita in sardonyx, which is attached to one of the famous aluminum letter openers made by Castellani, was probably by Girardet.83 It is the same design as an exquisite bust in the round that he sculpted in lapis lazuli, which was greatly admired by his contemporaries and was purchased by the queen herself as a gift to her mother, the Duchess of Genoa.84

At the end of the century, changes in taste and style led to a decline of the Castellani workshop. This adversely affected Girardet, and in 1892 he left Rome for Rio de Janeiro, where his son Augusto, who had abandoned gem carving, became a successful medalist.85 His other son, Enrico, also a gem carver, stayed in Rome and maintained his relationship with the Castellani studio, receiving payments for some stones in 1893 and 1895.86

Stones and Subject Matter

By commissioning work directly from the engravers, Augusto and later his son Alfredo maintained control over the choice of stone and subject, rather than just accepting what the market bad to offer. The Castellani stock of cameos (intaglios were rarer) was carved in stones that they themselves had selected for quality and color or for other unusual qualities, as in the rich, new imports from South America. During the last period of the Castellani production semitransparent, essentially monochromatic stones (sapphire, emerald, and topaz, but also chalcedony and amethyst), almost completely replaced the “multicolored” sardonyxes, onyxes, and oriental agates that characterized the production of Pistrucci, Girometti, and other gem carvers. The importance the Castellani attached to color and quality of stones is illustrated by Augusto’s comments on individual minerals.87 In one case, when Princess Basiantini sent him four uncut sapphires, he refused to have them engraved, because the stones were “extremely pale and the work would make no effect.”88 The method of acquisition, the origin of the stones, and the costs associated with them comprise a topic worth further study.

The subjects of the cameos and intaglios chosen by the Castellani to be mounted in their goldsmiths’ creations belong with few exceptions to the repertoire generally adopted by nineteenth-century gem carvers. They continued to use eighteenth-century sources, primarily engravings of mythological subjects, ancient monuments, and portraits of illustrious men of the past and portraits of contemporary figures, all of which bad been much in demand by visitors on the Grand Tour. New nineteenth-century sources included works of the great “modern” sculptors, especially Antonio Canova, Bertel Thorvaldsen, and others who worked in their style, including John Gibson, Emil Wolff, Raimondo Trentanove, and Luigi Bienaimé.89 The subjects came primarily from mythology and the ancient world, with a preference for Jupiter, Venus, Bacchus and the bacchantes, Flora, and Medusa, for theatrical masks, and for such popular images as the Cupid Seller, after a painting by Joseph-Marie Vien from 1763, to name a few.

The participation of the Castellani, Augusto in particular, in the political and cultural life of Rome also influenced the shop’s production of cameos. In the years after the unification of Italy, tricolor brooches, “Stars of Italy,” and sapphire cameos representing Italy were made. One cameo, known as “Seated Rome,” could be the sapphire previously identified as Cybele at the center of a sparkling mount in gold and brilliants. The design is of Renaissance derivation and corresponds to the summary description in the register (including the number of diamonds employed) and to a design sketch dated 1898.90 Another piece with a political subject is more unusual, perhaps unique in the repertory. This sapphire intaglio brooch depicts the massacre at Dogali in Africa, at which five hundred Italian soldiers were killed. It was engraved by Girardet between 1887 and 1888, immediately after the tragedy occurred, and represents an anomaly, not only within the Castellani production, but also among that of the engraver.91 Its grim subject matter undoubtedly accounts for the jewel remaining in the shop for many years before passing into private bands, if only for a brief time, before arriving in a public museum in 1917.92 By then its original significance had largely faded from public consciousness.

Other cameos represented personages of the past who could be linked with political and cultural events, such as the celebrations for the sixth centenary of the birth of Dante in 1865. Dante was also closely linked with the Risorgimento, however, and a micromosaic portrait had been offered in the preceding years and in hardstones until the end of the century.93 The portraits of Illustrious Men of Italy, such as Petrarch, Michelangelo, Tasso, Ariosto, and Boccaccio, appear in cameos or metal, to be used in series for bracelets, or individually for brooches, rings, and buttons.94 Prototypes of the portraits were codified by the splendid productions of Giovanni Antonio Santarelli, Giuseppe Girometti, and Giuseppe Cerbara for the collection of the duke of Blacas.95 Castellani also commissioned cameos with portraits of those who personified liberal ideals such as Friedrich Schiller (in a rigid bracelet) and George Washington.96 Another symbol of freedom and the struggle to achieve it was the biblical David. The head of David, derived from Bernini’s well-known statue, appears as a chalcedony cameo mounted in a brooch.97

The Twelve Caesars series depicting Roman emperors, mounted in bracelets, was probably created in the celebratory climate of the century. The great political and military figures of ancient Roman history appeared frequently, especially Julius Caesar and Augustus, together and separately, and Horatio at the Bridge. There is even a record of a brooch mounted with three portraits of Julius Caesar and two of Alexander.98

Other cameos had portraits of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century personalities, such as Frederick the Great of Prussia, Voltaire, Maria Theresa of Austria, and Napoleon I and his family.99 Some of these were the work of such excellent gem carvers as Amastini and Nicola Morelli, a specialist in portraits of the French imperial family. These were certainly acquired by the Castellani for their illustrious signatures.

Religious subjects formed another category. Cameos with the portrait of Pope Pius IX were produced in great numbers immediately after his election in June 1846. In January 1847 Castellani offered a “snuffbox with a cameo portrait of the Pope” mounted in brilliants, and in February the engraver Antonio Vergé signed a receipt for “a portrait of the Supreme Pontif Pius IX.”100 Before 1854 portraits of this pope, both in hardstone or shell, and in various dimensions, were mounted in an assort1nent of brooches, from simple and inexpensive ones to the most costly. The 1850 inventory lists four examples of a “pin with a cameo of Pius IX with letters in enamel” and “four small portraits of Pius IX; Fibula Pius IX hardstone cameo.”101 Other cameos depicted Pius VII, as a representative of the popes of the past.102 Images of Christ and the Virgin, as well as such holy figures as Saint Catherine of Siena, were engrave cl in hardstone to mount in jewels that had a clear Christian meaning (like the Chi-Rho brooches).103 In some examples a single cameo carried two images. There were also many generic “Sacred Cameos.”104


Mounts

The earliest cameos and intaglios were mounted by Castellani according to traditional models, such as simply surrounding them with brilliants. Later, they were inserted into many unusual and original settings, some inspired by the ancient world and others, of increasing complexity and sumptuousness, uniting elements from diverse stylistic periods. For example, a jewel of the fifteenth century could be reinterpreted by adding motifs from other sources.105 It was not necessary for the mount to correspond in period or style to that of the engraving on the stone. There were sometimes enormous discrepancies between cameos of pure classical tradition and their mounts, which were combined into particularly complicated jewels.

The mount could be designed as a function of the stone, as in the case of portraits of historical figures such as Washington and Napoleon. These cameos were framed in simple gold, composed of arches, ribbons, and leaves so as not to distract, but rather to focus the attention on the image. In another simple treatment, the frame was enriched by enamels or small unfaceted colored stones. Other settings emphasized the artistic and technical skill of the engraver and the quality of the image, as in some particularly important stones signed by great artists: the sea-born Venus by Antonio Berini, for example, or the Medusa by Luigi Pichler. The refined mounts for these great intaglios in rock crystal emphasize the transparency of the stone. The color is only heightened by the gold, clark enamels, or other colored stones; the design is never gaudy-the stone being the most important element of the jewel. At other times, as in the most elaborate necklaces, the stones are of the same importance as the setting or complement it with a purely coloristic effect. The actual carving, however, may not always be of the highest quality.

Excellent cameos were embedded at the center of rich, elaborate settings, of sixteenth-century or baroque inspiration, in which caryatids and griffins are found, and many multicolored stones, enamels, and pearls were used. The subject matter of the sapphire intaglio with the Massacre of Dogali seems almost inappropriate for an object of adornment, a splendid Renaissance-style jewel, but the choice of such a mount may have been a way to commemorate the heroism of an event that was a national tragedy and had deeply moved Augusto Castellani.106 Sapphires were often mounted in gold with brilliants, as pendants, and with other stones of the same color. Emeralds and green stones were also often used in the 188os and 1890s, as is documented by a type of necklace replicated several times, in which black enamel and pearls are used with the gold to emphasize the color of the emerald.107 Along with cameos and intaglios of large dimensions, many smaller stones of varying quality were used for every type of jewel. Small intaglios were frequently employed for necklaces, earrings, tie-pins, bracelets, and buttons, whose mounts- even the most modest ones-are signed with the Castellani mark.


Clients for Cameo Jewels

Among the prestigious Castellani clientele, there were undoubtedly many who appreciated jewels adorned with cameos and intaglios. Their names are certain to be found in the archival material, but this research, although enticing, goes beyond the scope of the present essay. lnstead, a single example will stand for all. Members of the royal house of Savoy, who were among the earliest and most celebrated Italian clients of Castellani, showed a special affinity for cameos and intaglios.

As early as 1839 Fortunato Pio mounted “two cameos for a brooch in gold” and “another cameo in gold” for “Her Majesty the Queen of Sardinia,” Maria Theresa of Tuscany, wife of King Carl Albert.108 Later, Umberto, crown prince of Piedmont, and his wife Margherita, who signed the visitors’ book in 1871, frequently commissioned the Castellani to produce objects to serve as official state gifts. Jewels with carved stones, such as brooches with cameos in amethyst and cat’s-eye, figure among their choices (1875, 1876).109 After 1878, the year in which they became sovereigns of Italy following the death of Victor Emmanuel II, their purchasing increased, especially on special anniversaries and to mark official visits to Rome by princes and emperors. They also bought jewels for their personal use. Beginning in the 1880s they focused on brooches with cameos in sapphire, topaz, emerald, and hyacinthe inserted in especially precious mounts sparkling with brilliants.110 For the tiny bust of Queen Margherita, Castellani had Giorgio Antonio Girardet carve the queen’s portrait in miniature in lapis lazuli and sardonyx. The extremely refined carving depicts the queen wearing her celebrated pearls and an archaeological- style tiara in the form of oak leaves. It is similar to that of gold leaves that was part of the group of jewels created by Castellani and presented to the queen by the city of Rome as a wedding gift in 1868.111 The quality of decoration and technique, and the stature and range of patronage for cameos and intaglios, make this one of the most compelling areas of Castellani jewelry.

© Bard Graduate Center, Lucia Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli.

Acknowledgments: The subject of this essay was originally to be a chapter in a book on the Castellani planned many years ago with Gabriella Bordenache Battaglia and Domenico Petochi. Owing to the passing of these two dear friends, it is now written as a tribute to them, in memory of the enthusiasm that enlivened our meetings. The essay is dedicated to Gabriella, the most profound connoisseur of the Castellani, who first introduced me to them.

1.Hardstone (pietra dura) is understood to mean precious stones that are hard enough to be carved. lntaglio signifies cutting into the surface of the material, as in a seal; cameos are created by carving away the background to leave a figure in relief, with one or more layers of different colors.

2.This essay is largely based on an examination of about two-thirds of the Castellani archive: Fondo Famiglia Castellani, Archivio di Stato Rome (see the appendix, in this volume). An important and indispensable contribution to an understanding of the use of cameos by Castellani will be added by the future publication of the albums of designs in the Istituto Statale d’Arte l, Rome, now being analyzed by Maurizio Donati.

3.Augusto Castellani wrote:”the artists of the modern period had the custom of engraving and working stones of large dimensions, when they intended to produce an excellent result” (gli artisti dell’epoca moderna ebbero costume d’incidere e lavorare pietre di gran dimensione, quando intendeano voler fare opera eccellente) and that “the best cameos of the fourth type [, that is,] of the classical modern school [are] rare and not of small value” (“rari e di non piccolo valore siano i migliori cammei della quarta specie [cioè] della scuola classica moderna”); see “Gemme incise,” in Discorso dell’ oreficeria antica (Florence: n.p., 1862): 57.

4.See, e.g., the tiara of Empress Josephine by Nitot, now in the Husgeradskammaren, Stockholm; illustrated in Diana Scarisbrick, Chaumet: Master Jewellers since 1780 (Paris: Alain de Gourcuff Éditeur, 1995): figs. 14- 15. See also Lucia Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Del cameo e dell’incisione in pietre dure e tenere nella Roma del XIX secolo,” in Arte e Artigianato nella Roma di Belli, Atti del Convegno, Fondazione Besso (Rome: Colombo 1998): 14- 15. The fashion was later revived by the Empress Eugénie, as evident in an 1856 portrait (Musée National du Château de Compiègne, inv. C 95 .007), reproduced in Révue du Louvre 4 (1995): 89, fig. 27.

5.Eugène Fontenay, Les Bijoux anciens et modernes (Paris: Societé d’Encouragement Pour la Propagation des Livres d’Art, 1887): 420 and 242-43, 418-19 (for use of cameos in jewels).

6.The crisis is well documented in Pistrucci fanuly letters dated 1842. Pistrucci’s daughter, then in London, wrote to her brother Camillo, a sculptor living in Rome, that “now cameos aren’t going here because they say that in the last analysis as - long as the fashion lasts a seashell makes the same effect; … for months Papà with all his reputation hasn’t been able to give away the last Medusa cameo that he made” (“i camei adesso qui non vanno perché dicono che una conchiglia in fin di fatti per fin che dura la moda fa il medesimo effetto, … Papà con il nome che già ha sono mesi che non trova a dar via il cameo ultimo che fece di una Medusa”), quoted in Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli,”Del cammeo” (1998): 21. See also Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, I modelli in cera di Benedetto Pistrucci, monograph, Bollettino di numismatica (Rome: Museo della Zecca, 1989), 1:67- 68, n. 32.

7.“Al cominciar di questo secolo molto essendo ricercati gl’intagli antichi, non pochi artisti si diedero a falsificarli: e ciò fu occasione che poco appresso sorgessero alcuni eccellenti intagliatori italiani, quali furono il Calandrelli, il Pistrucci, il Girometti, il Picker [sic] e molti altri. Questi con le loro opere emularono gli antichi e furono artisti il cui nome vivrà quanto i camei da essi scolpiti. Ma oggimai la scuola da essi fondata già si trova in iscadimento, e se i facoltosi non si staranno dal volere cammei duri per meschini prezzi, si può prevedere che presto abbia a cessar del tutto”;Augusto Castellani, Discorso (1862): 61- 62. When Augusto was writing this, the great engravers he mentioned had already been dead for several years, but from this date on, in an attempt to arrest the decline, the Castellani will continue to commission work from some of the best engravers still active as the last heirs of a great Roman tradition.

8.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 39, 9 February 1839.

9.Ibid. 69, April 1859, fol. 137 (“Collection of cameos and engraved stones 6oo.”); fol. 138 (“Collection of cameos and engraved stones 200”). The dealers Rolli, Meloni, and Depoletti appear in 1858.

10.Michael Tyskiewicz, Memories of an Old Collector; trans. Mrs. Andrew Lang (London, Longmans, Green and Co., 1898): 8o. For the sale of the Boncompagni Ludovisi collection before 1883, see Lucia Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Una raccolta per collezionisti,” in Il tesoro di via Alessandrina, exhib. cat., Rome, Castel Sant’Angelo (Milan: Silvana Editoriale, 1990): 33; and Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Una raccolta di solfi del Museo Boncompagni per il Medagliere Capitolino,” Bollettino dei musei comunali di Roma, n.s. 7 (1993): 128- 36.

11.“in quanto ai camei incisione in rilievo non ce ne sono.Ve nè però una partita di quelle con l’incisione in incavo, tutt’ora si stanno lavorando, e sabato prossimo ve ne rimetterò i campioni.” ASR, Famiglia Castellani 21,14 April 1835.

12.“Vi rimetto 7 camei in onice in rilievo quali costano 10 paoli l’uno, e sedici onici incisi e costano baj[occhi] 80 l’uno. Vedrete che sono assai ben fatti . Se volete averne in quantità non avete cha a comandarmi che sarete subito servito.” ASR, Famiglia Castellani 21, 18 April 1835. Paoli and “baj” (bajocchi) were units of currency then in use. For Jean-François Bautte, with whom Fortunato Pio Castellini had numerous dealings, see chap. 3, by Stefano Aluffi-Pentini, in this volume.

13.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 38, 26-27 October 1838. All shipping expenses (packing, customs, and so on) are recorded, in addition to expenses for the purchase of stones intended for Megassier.

14.Ibid. For Frediani (1787- after 1850; studio at 89 Via della Croce) see Enrico de Keller, Elenco di tutti i Pittori, Scultori, Architetti miniatori incisori in gemme e in rame scultori in metallo e mosaicisti aggiunti gli scalpellini, pietrari, perlari et altri aretefici … (Rome, 1824): 57; ibid. (1830): 106; Giuseppe Brancadoro, Notizie riguardanti le Accademie di scienze, ed arti esistenti in Roma … (Rome, 1834): 63; Constantino G. Bulgari, Argentieri, Gemmari e Orafi d’Italia (Rome: Lorenzo del Turco, 1958), I :469; Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Del cammeo” (1998): fig. 7.

15.For Vergé (1786-after 1850), see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 29/3, no.

14.Ibid. 38; ibid. 86, 1850 inventory, no. 2256 (eleven cameos in two color carnelian by Vergé). Vergé’s address was in Piazza di Spagna, but he is often confused with his nephew Giuseppe, otherwise little is known of him; see Bulgari, Argentieri (1959), 2:529.

16.For Pistrucci (17 83 - 1855) see ASR , Fanu glia Castellani 38, 26- 27 October 1838; Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, Modelli in oera (1989), 1:20, nos. 4-13 . For the four cameos see ASR, Fanu glia Castellani 38, 26- 27 October 1838 (no. 32, “a cameo representing a group of figures”; no. 33 , “a large cameo representing a Flora”; no. 34, “a [large cameo] group with mythological figures”; no. 35, “a [cameo] head of Julius Caesar in hardstone with background, original of the famous Giovanni Pichler”). For Dies, see ibid.

17.Pistrucci’s cameos may have been acquired by Michelangelo Caetani who visited him in London in 1835; ASR, Famiglia Castellani 21, 6 June 1835; see also Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, Modelli in cera (1989), 1:13.

18.For Dies (1778- 1849), with a studio in Via della Crocc, see Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani 39 (1991): 788; Allegmeines Künstlerlexikon 27 (Munich: K. G. Saur, 2000), 27: 270. He is listed with his son Luigi in Hawks Le Grice, Walks through the Studii in Rome (Rome, 1841), 2:283. He is discussed again later in this chapter and further sources are given.

19.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 39, 4 February 1840 (“sig. Bonly Dini” of Paris is listed among the debtors for: “a necklace and two bracelets containing cameos in coral mounted in gold representing various divinities; twelve unmounted ones of the same in coral representing various divinities; three of the same representing Jupiter and other subjects, one in hardstone representing Minerva; one with an unknown man, two with Jupiter and Mercury, two with Jupiter and Ceres, three with different subjects, one a representation of Alexander; a large cameo of coral representing Jupiter”); 7 March (for “three ‘mangi’ of engraved stones, one containing 21, the other 26 and the third 26 in all 71 stones mounted in gold; two coral cameos, a coral cameo with mounting; the same in hardstone representing a figure of a Bacchante; the same with Mars; the same with Apollo; the same with a small Bacchante; the same with various subjects”).

20.“A globolo” refers to round marks made by the drill used to make the decoration. See also chap. 8, by Elizabeth Simpson, in this volume.

21.For Mari see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 45 (“14 July 1845. Bought from Pietro Mari antique scarabs 48”); for Depoletti, see ibid. 29/3; and ibid. 69 (further purchases in 1858). Depoletti was a “mosaicist, restorer of Etruscan vases, dealer in antiquities, pictures, sculpture, Etruscan vases, terracottas, bronzes, ancient coins, and other objects of the fine arts,” whose shop was at 32 via Condotti (Keller, Elenco di tutti i Pittori [1830]: I20; Brancadoro, Notizie riguardanti le Accademie [ 1834]: 75). His collection of gems was especially notable (see Bullettino dell’Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica [1830]: 257); and his shop was remembered by Count Tyskiewicz as always being well furnished with new-found antiquities, including engraved stones and coins (Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Raccolta per collezionisti” [1990]: 33). For Diotallevi see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 29, no. 132. For Baseggio see ibid. 67 (“paid to Baseggio for 87 scarabs 176”). Baseggio (Basseggio, Baseggi) was among the most active antiquities dealers in Rome, known for his rich collections of gems (Bullettino dell’Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica [1836]: 196; ibid. [1842]: 187; ibid. [1844]: 87-88); for his “shop of mosaics and antiques, pictures, gold medals,Via del Babuino 43, 45,” see Keller, Elenco di tutti i Pittori (1830) : 119;Brancadoro, Notizie riguardanti le Accademie (1834): 74.

22.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 69, 51, and 123.

23.“gli scarabei antichi etruschi, greci e romani sono al presente tutti molto rari, e però l’alto lor prezzo spronò i moderni a falsificarli. E tanto si perfezionò tal mestiere che appena l’occhio più esercitato può discoprir la frode. Non è la pietra, non il lucido, non l’incisione, ma una certa apparenza soave e morbida quella che li fa riconoscere per antichi; e solamente da coloro che per lunghi anni posero studio in tal sorta di lavori, e per cagione di commercio o per altro, moltissimi ne videro e n’ebbero per le mani.” Augusto Castellani, Discorso (1862): 63-66.

24.It has not yet been possible to establish which gem carvers created the modern scarabs for Castellani. A close examination of the scarabs used in Castellani jewels might help determine their provenance and identify the different makers of them.

25.Twenty-five scarabs (a mixture of antique and modern) were used for the necklace in the Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia, Rome (inv. 85029); see Licia Vlad Borelli, “Faux, pastiches, imitations,” in Les Etrusques et l’Europe, exhib cat., Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Paris (Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 1992): no. 597; Ida Caruso, “Le oreficerie ottocentesche,” in Anna Maria Moretti Sgubini, ed., La Collezione Augusto Castellani (Rome: “L’Erma” di Bretschneider, 2000): 214, no. 189. Twenty-one antique scarabs “a globolo” for a necklace in the British Museum, London; see Vlad Borelli, Etrusques (1992): no. 596. Twenty-three for a piece in the Campana collection reassembled by Castellani with antique elements in 1859, now in the Musée du Louvre; see ibid., p. 433, no. 595- A bracelet is mentioned in ASR, Famiglia Castellani 89, 1858 inventory, no. 271 (“Bracelet with 15 scarabs and knots”); these were probably modern scarabs since excavated scarabs were always specified as “Etruscan” or “ancient”).

26.For the 1865 parure see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 95, which lists two sets with scarabs, as well as “The same (with) onyx scarabs composed of necklace, bracelet, earrings and fibula,” which were slightly more expensive at 500 instead of 450.

27.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 86, no. 2218 ff.

28.Quoted in Judy Rudoe, “Alessandro Castellani’s Letters to Henry Layard: Extracts concerning the 1862 International Exhibition in London and the Revival of Granulation,” Jewellery Studies 5 (1991): 118. The comment on Castellani’s stall is reported in its entirety.

29.ASR, Fam.iglia Castellani 196/4, p. 652.

30.Necklace with little cupids on garnets, Villa Giulia, inv. 85020; see Caruso, “Oreficerie ottocentesche” (2000): 217-18, no. 192. Necklaces with nicolos with dieties, inv. 85013; see ibid., pp. 228-29, no. 207. Zodiac motifs are well documented for important engravers, for example Luigi Pichler; see Lucia Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, La Collezione Paoletti: Stampi in vetro per impronte di intagli e cammei (Rome: Gangemi, forthcoming): 2:558-69.

31.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 26, p. 384.

32.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 26, p. 86, 1850, nos. 2256, 2268; ibid. 89, 1856; ibid. 51, 1857. Also see Geoffrey C. Munn, Castellani and Giuliano: Revivalist Jewellers of the Nineteenth Century (London:Trefoil; New York: Rizzoli, 1984): fig. 181Caruso “Oreficerie ottocentesche” (2000): 226, no. 204.

33.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 82.

34.For the use of these materials, to which ivory was occasionally added, see e.g., ibid. 22 (1838), 82 (1839), 83 (1843) ff. For their use as cameos see Augusto Castellani, Delle gemme (Florence: Tipografia G. Barbèra, 1870): 138 (lava), 145 (malachite), 223 (turquoise) .

35.The Saulini workshop was located at 96 Via del Babuino having moved there from Via della Croce. For Tommaso (1793-1864) and Luigi Saulini (1819 1883), see Malcom Stuart Carr, “Tommaso and Luigi Saulini,” Connoisseur (November 1975): 170-81 (contains several errors); “Saulini,” in Dictionary of Art, ed. Jane Turner (New York: Grove’s Dictionaries, 1996), 27 878; Le Grice, Walks (1841): 283 (Saulini address at 8 Via della Croce). The Neri brothers, Paolo (1813- post 1881) and Luigi (1816-?), were located in Via della Vite, Piazza di Spagna,Via Due Macelli,Via Sistina,Via Frattina, and 73 Via del Babuino (Paolo alone from 1869), see Keller, Elenco di tutti i Pittori (1824): 58; ibid. (1830) : 108; Brancadoro, Notizie riguardanti le Accademie (1834): 64; Le Grice, Walks (1841): 283; Bulgari, Argentieri (1959), 2:198; Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Del cammeo” (1998): fig. 7. Paolo Neri appears in Augusto Castellani’s memoir in connection with the election of 1881: “the other evening Paolo Neri engraver of cameos was slightly wounded, they say, in an election quarrel… . Neri was wounded by the glass of a shop window which broke on him. He published a flyer beginning ‘It’s not true that Paolo Neri … ’ and he drew from it an advanta ge for the election posing as the victim of the opposing side … and everyone laughed a lot” (Paolo Neri incisore di camei l’altra sera fu ferito leggermente, dicesi, in un diverbio elettorale … . la ferita del Neri fu prodotta dal vetro di una vetrina che si ruppe addosso. Stampò un avviso che comincia “Non è vero che Paolo Neri … ” e ne ricava un vantaggio all’elezione atteggiandosi vittima della fazione contraria … e se ne ride molto); see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 196/4, pp. 307- 8 (15 January 1881).

36.The Castellani may not have used Saulini cameos, especially those in seashell, probably because the color variations in the seashells employed are very limited and play exclusively on tonalities of rose-orange, cream, and gray-blue, which did not correspond to the demand for color in Castellani creations. See Augusto Castellani, Delle gemme (1870): 59; Archibald Billing, The Science of Gems, Jewels, Coins, and Medals Ancient and Modern, 2nd ed. (London: Daldy, Isbister & Co., 1875): 73-74. From the 1850s Castellani listings concerning the acquisition or use of cameos in seashell are rare. For an example of earlier use see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 45, 30 January 1846 (“Sig. Catini, a cameo in seashell bound in gold for a brooch hanging from the medal a drop with another cameo 8”) .

37.See Jewelry Anciet to Modern, exhib. cat. , Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore (New York: Viking Press, 1979): 235 , no. 674; Munn, Castellani and Giuliano (1984): fig. 178. Signed “Saulini” and attributed to Luigi, it is derived from a bust made in Rome by W H. Rinehart; see (Thieme-Becker 28 [1934]: 129).

38.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 123 , May 1856.

39.Thorvaldsen was identified as a Saulini source in Le Grice, Walks (1841), 2:225 (“the classic productions from the chisel of Thorwaldsen [sic], Gibson and other distinguished sculptors are also copied by Saulini in cameo”). See Lucia Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Glittica, medaglistica, oreficeria: Artisti-artigiani per l’Europa,” in Maestà di Roma da Napoleone all’Unità d’Italia: Universale ed Eterna, exhib. cat., Rome, Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Maderna (Milan: Electa, 2003): 532-33, no. XI.I.59. For pins with Night in shell see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 87, 1854; ibid. 89, 1856; ibid. 90, 1857. The Madonna of the Chair cameo, bound in a fibula, is listed with other shell cameos as no. 24 in the inventory of 1 April 1858 (ASR, Famiglia Castellani 90). For other examples see ibid. 85, 1850 and 1852 (shell) and 1850 (ivory).

40.Pietraro is the name given to the one who polishes and works precious stones for rings and necklaces, cuts and roughs out the shapes, so as to render them fit for being worked by the engravers of cameos and intaglios, and gives the final touch to the cleaning of the so-called Pastes, works boxes in soft and hard marbles, lava, porporina and venturina” (Keller, Elenco di tutti i Pittori [1824]: 10). Fortunato Pio explained the functions of the pietraro in a series of letters to Gregorio De Santis; see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 21, letters dated 3 June; 12 July (1834), 28 July, 4 August, 20 August, 1 September, 10 September, 19 September, 28 September (1835).

41.The Pasinati family of engravers and medalists is still active in Rome; see Bulgari, Argentieri (1959), 2:237- 38. The other engravers in metal often mentioned in the registers are the Kummers and Heinrich Lorenz, a celebrated Berlin-born engraver who worked in Rome from 1834 to 1840; see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 39, 1840 (“Ill. mo Lorenz”); Friedrich Noack, Das Deutschtum in Rom (Berlin and Leipzig: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt Stuttgart, 1927), 2: 339, 365.

42.See a letter from Giorgio Antonio Girardet to his son Enrico, 7 March 1884, Museo Boncompagni per le Arti Decorative, Rome, Fondo Girardet (hereafter cited as MBAD, Fonda Girardet); quoted in Lucia Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Cammei per Casa Savoia: i ritratti di Giorgio Antonio Girardet,” Strenna dei Romanisti 58 (1997): 510.

43.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 69, February 1859.

44.The role of Michelangelo Caetani in this type of commission remains to be examined; there is, e.g., a design for a cameo (?) depicting Cupid with his bow, signed “CAETANI” in an uncatalogued album in Fondazione Camillo Caetani, Rome. For the Twelve Caesars in a bracelet with onyx cameos (nine signed) mounted in two rows, in a private collection, see Munn, Castellani and Giuliano (1984): fig. 132; for another bracelet with cameos in chalcedony divided between a private collection and the Hull Grundy collection (The British Museum, London) , see Hugh Tait, ed., The Art of the Jeweller; A Catalogue of the Hull Grundy Gift to the British Museum: Jewellery, Engraved Gems and Goldsmiths’ Work (London: British Museum Publications, 1984) , 1:158-59, no. 986. Cameos with the portraits of the Twelve Caesars as well as the Illustrious Men of Italy were also used for buttons. For Medusa see ibid., p. 147, no. 954, pl. 47. The sapphire is mounted in a pin in gold and pearls, a model that derives from jewels depicted in the paintings of Perugino which the Castellani had taken as a model; see Specimens of Greek, Etruscan, Roman, Mediaeval, and Cinque Cento Jewels, from Existing Originals. By Signor Castellani, of Rome (London: n.p., [1862]): n.p. , no.VIII.A copy of this brochure is in ASR, Famiglia Castellani 201/1. For paintings in Perugia, Collegio del Cambio, see L’Opera Completa del Perugino (Milan: Rizzoli, 1969): pls. 41-42. For a copy of the Marlborough cameo see Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Glittica, medaglistica, oreficeria” (2003): 519 (illus.). For the Marlborough cameo itself see Gemmarum antiquarum delectus ex praestantioribus descriptus quae in dactyliothecis ducis Marlburiensis conservantur (London, 1845), 2: pl. 39; reproduced in Salomon Reinach, Pierres gravées des collections Marlborough et d’Orléans … (Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1895): pl. 116, 39. For the female figure, see Catalogo degli oggetti in oro, gemme, cammei, appartenunti al defunto comm. A[lfredo] Castallani, sale cat., P. and P. Santamaria, Rome, 15-18 December 1930, p. 15 , no. 172, pl. [VII]. For Julius Caesar see Villa Giulia, inv. 85271 . For male profile (Augustus) see Villa Giulia, inv. 85297 . It has been suggested that the letters in the mark of this intaglio, perhaps “C” and “G,” are the signature of the engraver rather than the Castellani mark. For necklace and earrings with dieties (Villa Giulia, inv. 85013) see G. Platz-Horster and H. U. Tietz, “Etruskische Skarabaen Kolliers mit einem Exkursus über die Granulation bei den Etruskern,” Jahrbuch der Berliner Museen 35 (1993): 37, fig. 62; and Caruso, “Oreficerie ottocentesche” (2000): 228-30, no. 207. This list is by no means exhaustive. Other pieces include an intaglio in chalcedony with the head of Maecenas for a tie pin, in the British Museum; see Tait, ed. , Art of the Jeweller (1984): 127, no. 850.There is also a cameo with a crowned portrait of Caroline Murat in two-level sardonyx mounted as a pin with a broad gold frame on the London art market. ln addition to the double C, the stone bears the inscription “Xaveria,” which has been interpreted as the signature of the engraver;see Munn, Castellani and Giuliano (1984): 151. There is another cameo, with a portrait of Joachim Murat, which bears the same inscription (Massimo Carafa Jacobini Collection, Rome).

45.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 97, 1852; 95, 1866; 92, 1880- 82; 98, 1883-97.

46.The cameo, signed by Girardet, is also documented by a cast in the MBAD, Fondo Girardet. Giorgio Antonio Girardet is discussed again later in this chapter, where further sources will be found.

47.The Venus and Cupid cameo is signed G. A. GIRARDET beside the double C; see Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Glittica, medaglistica, oreficeria” (2003): 533, no. XI. 1 .6o.The Jupiter and Medusa cameos are now lost but are documented by casts in the MBAD, Fondo Girardet.

48.For the number of shops of gem carvers active in the nineteenth century, see Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Del canmeo” (1998). Many of these are certainly among the anonymous “engravers” listed in the Castellani registers; it is also possible that in the shop inventories only the most important names were identified with the stones.

49.This was one of the engraved stones sent to Alfred Megassier in Paris, ASR, Famiglia Castellani 38,1838. For Giovanni Pichler (1734-1791), see Dictionary of Art (1996), 4: 733-34.

50.The two-layer sardonyx cameo is signed in Greek, ηΑχΑΔε [Pazzaglia]; see Lucia Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, ” Collezionisti e incisori di pietre dure a Roma nel XVIII e XIX secolo: Alcune considerazioni,” Zeitschriift für Kunstgeschichte 2 (1996): 191, fig. 9. The cameo must be added to the Pazzaglia (1736-1815) catalogue compiled by A. Giuliano, “Antonio Pazzaglia incisore genovese,” Paragone 21 (1970). The setting, with griffins’ heads in gold and enamel, is similar to that of a cameo by Odelli.

51.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 93, 1862, no. 25; 1863, no. 77 (“Bracelet 5 cameos Caravini 200”). This must be Bartolomeo Garavini (Garavina, Gravina) born in 1752, documented as active in 1806-9; see Bulgari, Argentieri (1958), 1: 494. Nothing precludes his activity in the following years or that of another member of the family.

52.For Morelli (1771-1838) see entry in Dictionary of Art (1996), 22: 103; Lucia Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Nicola Morelli incisore in pietre dure,Accademico di s. Luca,Virtuoso del Pantheon,” Bollettino dei musei comunali di Roma, n.s., 6 (1992): 63-76.

53.In reality more than one cameo with Hebe were listed in 1864 (ASR, Famiglia Castellani 92,July 1864, no. 976) and again in 1886 as “Hebe Jewel by Morelli 1500” (ibid. 98, 1886, no. 976). It recurs until 1895 as “medallion sphinxes gold cameo Morelli Hebe” or “jewel griffins gold cameo Hebe Morelli” or “cameo Hebe mounted Caryatids Morelli.” For the cameo of Napoleon (Villa Giulia, Rome, inv. 85207) in two-level sardonyx, signed MORELLI, see Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Nicola Morelli” (1992): fig. 2; Caruso “Oreficerie ottocentesche” (2000): 230, no. 209; Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, ” Glittica, medaglistica, oreficeria (2003): 522, no. XI.I.5. It is probably to be identified with the ” Fibula cameo Napoleon I” in ASR, Famiglia Castellani 98, 1904-5 inventory.

54.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 97, 1 June 1860 (list of diamonds in the shop).

55.Catalogo degli oggetti … A. Castellani (1930) : 8, no. 44 and pl. [VII]. Mounted in a pin in gold and cabochon sapphires and signed BERINI.

56.It is signed BERINI INC; see Caruso, “Oreficerie ottocentesche” (2000): 228, n. 205. The expedient of applying a background (“contro fondo”) to emphasize the images of intaglios in transparent or translucent stones was often employed by the Castellani. For Berini (1770-1861), see Allegmeines Künstlerlexikon (1994), 9: 440-4I.

57.For the topaz ring see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 82, 1836 (no. 1086), 1837, 1839; ibid. 83, 1840 (no. 24II), 1843 (no. 2591). L. Pichler often used topaz. For the carnelian with heads see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 83, 1840 (no. 666, “Chain bracelet engraved gold with a large carnelian and three heads engraved by Pickler”[sic]); 1841 (no. II43). For the onyx with vase see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 98, 1896 (no. 57, “Fibulas engraved onyx vase Picler [sic] 350”); 1901-1904. For the emerald pin see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 95, 1884 (no. 95, “Pin engraved emerald Pickler [sic] 500”). For the “Medusa in rock crystal” (Villa Giulia, inv. 85263) see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 98, 1883 (no. 132), 1887 (no. 125: “Fibula Medusa Rock Crystal Picler [sic] 500”), 1889 (no. 63); 1890 (no. 86); and possibly ibid. 98, 1889 (no. 63), 1890 (no. 86:”Fibula modern head Picler [sic] 500”). It is signed in Greek, n1xAEP; see Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Del cammeo” (1998): fig. 10.

58.For Luigi Pichler (1773-1854) see C. G. Barluzzi, ” Intorno alla vita e alle opere del commendatore Luigi Pichler, incisore di gemme,” Album 21 (1854) : 57-62; Hermann Rollett, Die drei Meister der Gemmoglyptik (Vienna: Wilhelm Braumuller, 1874): 40-68; Bulgari, Argentieri (1959), 2: 273-74; Dictionary of Art (1996), 24: 733-34; Marina Natoli and Francesco Petrucci, eds., Donne di Roma dall’Impero Romano al 1869: Ritrattistica Romana al Femminile, exhib. cat., Palazzo Chigi in Ariccia (Rome: De Luca, 2003): 166-67, no. 79.

59.For Angelo Antonio Amastini (1754-post 1815), see Romolo Righetti, Incisori di Gemme e Cammei in Roma dal Rinascimento all’Ottocento (Rome: Fratelli Palombi, 1952): 56; Bulgari, Argentieri (1958), 1:52; Dictionary of Art (1996), 1: 756. The Dictionary maintains that Amastini and Mastini are the same family. Angelo Antonio Amastini’s productions are often confused with those of his son Nicolò (1816-1851); their work is yet to be considered in detail. See also ASR, Famiglia Castellani 95, 1865. For “Arethusa” cameo see ibid. 98, 1904 (“no. 151 Fibula Aretusa Amastini”) and 1905.

60.The signature MASTINI is known from several stones; see, for example, Catalogo degli oggetti … A. Castellani (1930): 15, no. 163, pl. [VII]; and Tait, ed., Art of the Jeweller (1984): 131, n. 870. This has always been confusing, with its resemblance to “Amastini,” suggesting Angelo Antonio or his son Nicolò. “Mastini” could be an abbreviation devised by Nicolò to distinguish his work from that of his father, but this has not yet been confirmed (see preceding note).

61.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 92, 1861; ibid. 98, 1890 (no. 42, “portable altar cameo Mastini”), 1892, 1897; ibid. II4, 1887 (“to pay signor Mastini”).

62.For cameo with Leda see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 98, 1894 (no. 32), 1902, 1904 (no. 121: “Fibula cameo Leda Pistrucci”), 1905 (no. 169); Catalogo degli oggetti … A. Castellani (1930): 8, no. 46, pl. [VII]; Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, Modelli in cera (1989), I: 24, no. 34, pl. 4. For the cameos with Apollo and Muses see Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, Modelli in cera (1989), I: 24, n.35. For the shipment to Megassier see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 38, 26-27 October 1838. For Benedetto Pistrucci (1773-1855) see Dictionary of Art (1996), 24: 887; Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli “Opere di Giuseppe e Pietro Girometti: Modelli in cera per cammei di Benedetto, Elena e Maria Elisa Pistrucci,” in Il Museo di Roma racconta la città, exhib. cat., Palazzo Braschi (Rome: Gangemi, 2002): 222-27; Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Glittica, medaglistica, oreficeria” (2003): esp. 523-27, nos. XI.I.10-Xl.I.37. There is a cameo by Pistrucci with a bust of the Apollo Belvedere in the Hermitage, Saint Petersburg, ex-coll. Mallia; see J. Kagan in Maestà di Roma (2003): 525 , n.Xl.I23.

63.Giuseppe Girometti (1780-1851) became a member of the Accademia di San Luca in 1812. A prolific gem carver and medalist, with a studio at Via Capo le Case, he was discussed in Le Grice, Walks (1841), 2: 163-77, in which ten cameos, acquired by the pope, were mentioned as true works of sculpture. In fact Girometti had begun his career as a sculptor; see Dizionario Biografico (2001) , 56:599-601; Dictionary of Art (1996), 12: 738; Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli “Opere di Giuseppe e Pietro Girometti” (2002): 208-27; Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Glittica, medaglistica, oreficeria” (2003): 528-30, nos. XI.I.38-XI.I.50. Girometti’s daughter Clara was married to a lawyer named Vannutelli, who appears frequently in the Castellani client lists. He was a great enthusiast of scarabs, cameos, and engraved stones and eventually put together an important collection of them; see Bullettino dell’Insituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica (1839): 97-112. For the Girometti family and Girometti’s relations with the Vannutelli see Romolo Righetti, “Ricordi di un vecchio medico romano,” L’Urbe 31 no. 5 (1958): 12.A catalogue of the Vannutelli collection (Dattiolioteca Vannutelliana [n.p., after 1845]) contained many cameos by Girometti, some of them mounted in gold and enamel, possibly by Castellani.

64.Signed GIROMETTI; see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 98, 1902 (“no. 122: Fibula cameo Washington Girometti 300”), 1903, 1904. Another cameo with a portrait of Washington, appears in ibid. 95, 1866 (no. 272). Girometti made also a cameo with a bust of Washington after the marble bust by Raimondo Trentanove, documented by a cast (photo in Deutsches Archaeologisches Institut, Rome, coll. Cades, vol. 73, no. 869) .The cameo was most likely made between 1833 and 1846, dates marking the publication of two surveys of Girometti’s work: P. E. Visconti, Notizia delle opere dell’incisore in pietre dure ed in coni Cav. Giuseppe Girometti (Rome, 1833); and Achille Gennarelli, “Le gemme incise dal cav. Giuseppe Girometti,” Il Saggiatore: Giornale Romana di Storia, Belle Arti e Lettere 3 (1846): 153.The first source makes no mention of this cameo, but the second one does, suggesting that it was made in the interim.

65.For cameos surrounded by brilliants see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 97 (“list of diamonds in the shop: 7 March 1868, 40 brilliants surround fibula cameo Girometti 17; 10 October 1874, 20 brilliants cameo Girometti 14”); ibid. 92. For cameo with Cupid see ibid. 92, 1882. For “jewel cameo Girometti” see ibid. 98, 1883-85 (inventories). For fibula with “Amore” see ibid. 98, 1889 (“n. 36. Fibula cameo Girometti cupid 750”).

66.“Etruscan Style,” in Specimens of Greek … Jewels [1862]: n.p., no.VII (ASR, Famiglia Castellani 201/I). “Cerbara” is identified with the better-known Giuseppe (1770-1856) (Dictionary of Art [1996], 6: 341-42; Allegmeines Künstlerlexikon [1997], 1T545-44). Correct spelling is Tyskiewicz.

67.Names may be added once the full Castellani archive has been searched. Some are mentioned only once but may in fact coincide with anonymous workers listed only as “paid to the engraver.” Odelli and Girardet are discussed later in this essay and sources given there. For Dies, see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 35, 1834 (2 December, “paid to the engraver sig. Dies for 25 cameos of seashell luigi 18 parts at 79.20”; 15 December, “Paid to the engraver Dies for a pair of cameo pendants in seashell”); and ibid. 38, 1838. Dies has also been mentioned earlier in this essay and further sources given there. For Sirletti see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 30, 1829 (“II7/8 paid to Sirletti for 4 buttons in seashell 2; 13/8 paid to the engraver Sirletti for engraving letters .54”); see also Bulgari, Argentieri (1959), 2A15-16. Fm· Vergé, see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 29/3 , p. 14; ibid. 38; ibid. 86, 1850 inventory, no. 2256. For Frediani see, e.g., de Keller, Elenco di tutti i Pittori (1824): 57· For Stefano Teoli, see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 38, 26 October 1838 (“a case with ten large cameos”); Giuseppe Antonio Guattani, Memorie Enciclopediche Romane (Rome, 1808), 4: 157. For Vincenzo Teoli (born 1759) see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 39, 26 April 1839 (pm-chase of a sapphire cameo with Napoleon); Bulgari, Argentieri (1959), 2: 461 (from 1796 to 1813 studio located in Via Felice). For De Santis see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 29, p. 140, 23 July 1847 (receipt for a chrysoprase); Pietro de Santis or De Santis was also mentioned by Giuseppe Tambroni in 1814 (see Stella Rudolph, Giuseppe Tambroni e lo Stato delle Belle Arti in Roma nel 1814 [Rome: Instituto di Studi Romani, 1982]: 72). For his brother (?) Gregorio, see, e. g. , Allegmeines Künstlerlexikon (2000), 26: 306.

68.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 29, p. II4 (“Received from sig. Fortunato Pio Castellani the sum of twenty-five scudi which are for the price agreed upon for a cameo with two faces of blood-colored jasper sold to the same declaring myself finally content and satisfied. In Fede, 17 May 1847. Luigi Bochioli”).

69.Le Grice, Walks (1841), 2:283. The other engravers listed were: Giuseppe Cerbara and his son Nicola, Giuseppe Caputi, Giovanni and Luigi Dies, Dolcini (possibly a member of the Dolce family), Giuseppe Girometti, Giuseppe Neri and his son Paolo, and Tommaso Saulini.

70.Odelli was listed at 143 Via Felice (1813-30, now Via Sistina) , II Via Quattro Fontane (1841), and 145 Via Rasella (from 1856) . Keller, Elenco di tutti i Pittori· (1824): 58; ibid. (1830): 108; Artistical Directory (or Guide to the Studios of Italian and foreign painters and sculptors resident in Rome to which are added the principal mosaicists and shell-engravers) (Rome, 1856); Augusto Castellani, “L’Arte nell’lndustria,” in Monografia della Città di Roma e della campagna romana (Rome: Tipografia Elzeviriana, 1881), 2: 410; Bulgari, Argentieri (1959), 2: 207. Odelli (1785-1874), who is last mentioned in the Castellani archive on 1 January 1869 (ASR, Famiglia Castellani 53), has not been fully researched to date. He is known to have won second prize in the first class of the Scuola del Nudo in March 1803 (Catalogo dei disegni della Scuola del Nudo, 1754-1872, p. 100, no. 582, Archive of the Accademia di San Luca, Rome). He has been associated with the gem carvers who made pieces for the collection of Prince Poniatowski, but there is no proof of this to date. His onyx cameo in seven strata representing “the Hours leading the chariot of the Sun” was shown at the London International Exhibition of 1862. In 1864, after Tommaso Saulini’s death, Odelli inventoried Saulini ‘s studio, signing “Antonio Odelli , engraver of cameos in [pietra] dura, intaglio, and other. Shop in Via Rasella 145”; see Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Del cammeo” (1998): fig. 7; Righetti, Incisori di Gemme (1952): 85.

71.These commissions included work for D. Pietro de Tauci of Leghorn in 1836, Monsignor Riario and Prince Torella in 1845, Signora Paiella in 1846, Signore Verrier in 1849, and Mme Tampone and Dr. Donarelli in 1850. For Castellani’s difficulty in getting an overdue “little bill” paid, see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 22; this kind of engraved work by Odelli is also found in other registers and documents (ASR, Famiglia Castellani 42, 45, 50, 67, 124).

72.For legal problems between Fortunato Pio and Prince Doria Pamphilj, see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 5; also see chap. 3, by Stefano Aluffi Pentini, in this volume.

73.Just three signed pieces are known: an emerald cameo, a small sardonyx cameo with ” Italy and military towers (Massimo Carafa Jacobini Collection, Rome), and an onyx cameo with Venus and Cupid; Catalogo della 20 Biennale dell’Arte Orafa: Breve itineraio del gioiello dal XIII al XIX secolo, exhib. Cat. Palazzo Braschi (Rome: S.E.A., 1981): fig. 38.

74.The actual measurement was one palma romano high or 22.3 cm.

75.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 21, letters dated 3 June; 12 July (1834), 28 July, 4 August, 20 August, 1 September, 10 September, 19 September, 28 September (1835). For the little-known Gregorio De Santis (or De Sanctis), the brother of Pietro from whom Fortunato Pio had purchased a chrysoprase in July 1847 (ASR, Famiglia Castellani 29, p. 140), see Guattani, Memorie Enciclopediche Romane (1808), 4:157; he lived in Palazzo Borghese, 1795-1824 (Bulgari, Argentieri [1958], 1:400). Since his name no longer appears in the lists of 1824, he must already have been in Florence (Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Del cammeo” [1998]).

76.“Io ho uno zaffiro nel quale è rilevato il ritratto di Vespasiano: fu trovato nella via Appia. Lo feci copiare sopra un quarzo azzurro dall’ egregio Odelli, valente incisore romano, il cui lavoro parmi riuscisse eccellente, ma l’artista mi asseverò che il quarzo malissimo si incideva per la poco omogeneità della sostanza. Feci dal medesimo incidere due grossi corindoni azzurri, e sovr’essi il lavoro riuscì stupendamente finito, perché meglio resisteva all’ordigno.” Augusto Castellani , Delle gemme (1870): 232-33. This is probably the stone listed in the 1866 inventory (no. 295) as “Fibula sapphire cameo Via Appia,” ASR, Famiglia Castellani 95.

77.For cameo with Vespasian (Villa Giulia, inv. 85496. ) see Caruso “Oreficerie ottocentesche” (2000):237-38, no. 218. For the light blue chalcedony cameo see Catalogo degli oggetti . . . A. Castellani (1930), p. 15 , no. 162, pl. [VII]; and Fine Jewels and Jewels for the Collector, sale cat., Sotheby’s, London, 18 June 1992, p. 14, no. 39. See also ASR, Famiglia Castellani 98, 1883 ff.

78.Florence, Museo Archeologico, grandducal collection, inv. 15444; see Antonio Giuliano, I cammei dalla Collezione Medicea del Museo Archeologico di Firenze (Rome: DeLuca; Milan: Leonardo, 1989): 244-45, no. 175.

79.Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, Collezione Paoletti, vol. 3 (forthcoming): no. 81.

80.For intaglio with head of Mars see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 45, 7 February 1846. For “sacred cameo” see ibid. 94, 1864 (fibulas: no. 190). For cameo with Hercules see ibid. (armbands: no. 66). For “Lautberg” piece see ibid. 124, p. 210, 31 May 1858 (“Debit to Mr. Laitberg [sic]for amount paid for his account to sig. Odelli 100”); p. 213 (“credit to Prince Laitberg [sic] who paid off 100”). Other payments to Odelli are listed in April (p. 36), September, and November of 1857.

81.The cameo with Flora is open in back, revealing the signature: A. ODELLI .F. ROM. AN. 88. This date is odd because Odelli died in 1874, but his widow and daughters are documented as selling his works as late as 1881 and may have added the posthumous date; see A Handbook of Rome and Its Environs (London: John Murray, 1881): 24. I am grateful to Michelle Hargrave for this reference. For the cameo with Persephone see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 98, 1904, no. 157 (“Cameo rape of Proserpina Odelli 200”); probably Catalogo degli oggetti … A. Castellani (1930): 9, no. 53 (agate), pl. [VII] (53 is wrongly numbered 279 in the plate).

82.Facts in the Castellani documents can be supplemented and confirmed by the Girardet family papers in MBAD, Fonda Girardet. This archive was left to the state in 1997 by the Girardet heirs; the author is currently studying its contents for future publication.

83.See Roma Capitale 1870-1911, I piaceri e i giomi: la moda, exhib. cat., Villa Medici, Rome (Venice: Marsilio, 1970): 64 (incorrectly described as being in ivory); Maria Cristina Molinari in Moretti Sgubini, ed., Collezione Augusto Castellani (2000): 232, no. 212. See also ASR, Famiglia Castellani 98, inventory of 30 June 1903 (“paperknife cameo the Queen 300”); 30 June 1904 (“paperknife bust [of] Queen Margherita 300”).

84.Augusto Jandolo, Antiquaria (Milan: Ceschina, 1947): 191; Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Cammei per Casa Savoia” (1997): 515, n. 15, and 513 (illus.). The object, now lost, is documented by a plaster cast in the MBAD, Fondo Girardet.

85.For Giorgio Antonio Girardet (1829-1892) and his sons Augusto Giorgio (1855-1955) and Enrico (186r-1929 ), see Dizionario Biografico 56 (2001): 473-76, corrected per documents in the MBAD, Fondo Girardet. See also Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Cammei per Casa Savoia” (1997): 509-16; Pirzio Biroli Stefànelli, ” Glittica, medaglistica, oreficeria (2003): 533, nos. XI.I.61-XI.I. 62. For the sapphire with the battle of Dogali see Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Dogali 1887” (2002) . In 1889 Giorgio Antonio was employed to value and divide into two lots “the cameos, the rough stones, and the other objects relative to the cameo workshop” of Luigi Saulini, who died in 1883. Some of Giorgio Antonio Girardet’s cameos with Medusa, now lost but documented by casts, are similar to the cameo in the brooch.

86.ASR, Farniglia Castellani 58 , 1893 (three stones), 1895.

87.Augusto Castellani, Discorso (1862); Augusto Castellani, Delle gemme (1870) .

88.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 25, 25 July 1888, p. 418, “pallidissimi e il lavoro non vi farebbe alcun effetto.”

89.See L.Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Le opere di Thorvaldsen nella glittica dell’Ottocento,” in Thorvaldsen, l’ambiente, l’influsso, il mito, supplement 18, Analecta Romana Instituti Danici (1991).

90.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 97:28 October 1865 (“42 brilliants fibula sapphire italia 84/8”). In reality the differences in the number of the brilliants (forty-three in the Cooper-Hewitt pin plus twenty-one for the bezel of the cameo) might be explained by the possibility that the registers refer to several brooches with the same “seashell” mount. The design sketch is dated 1898, with “1879” crossed out (Instituto Statale d’ Arte I, Rome, Bequest of Alfredo Castellani, Album VI, p. 88r). The quatrefoil of the mount recalls Lorenzo Ghiberti’s fifteenth-century panels for the doors of the Baptistery del Duomo in Florence (1403-24).

91.This event had shocked the Italian public, including Augusto Castellani; see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 196/4, pp. 602-4.

92.Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Dogali 1887 (2002). It is not certain that this was a Castellani commission (it lacks the double C engraved on the stone); it might have been a design made on the personal Initiative of Girardet, although there are no similar engravings in his repertory.

93.See, e.g., ASR, Famiglia Castellani 67, 22 March 1859 (“Deakin, bound in gold in Etruscan style a cameo in hardstone Dante 25”); ibid. 89, 1856; ibid. 94, 1864 (no. 205); ibid. 93, 1863, 1864 (no. 338, “Fibula Cameo Dante and Mosaic”; “Fibula cameo Dante”; Fibula Dantesca; cameo Dante mosaic surround”); ibid. 95, 1866 (“Cameo Dante and Mosaic”; “Armilla Mosaic Dante and gem”); ibid. 142, 1896; ibid. 98, 1897 (“Fibula carved sapphire Dante rooo,” which from the register of workers appears to have been mounted by Vitta).

94.Not surprisingly, cameos celebrating Italian luminaries were offered in the years immediately before the unification of Italy (e.g., Tasso in 1852, Michelangelo in 1857). Homer occurs among the famous men of antiquity. See the bracelet in gold in Villa Giulia, inv. 85267.

95.Visconti, Notizia (1833) : esp. p. 16, no. 6; Gennarelli, “Gemme incise” (1846): 157-58.

96.For Schiller see ASR, Famiglia Castellani 94, inventory of 1864 (“Arrnilla cameo Schiller). Washington has been documented earlier in this chapter.

97.Cameo in chalcedony mounted in a gold brooch with the Castellani mark (Massimo Carafa Jacobini Collection, Rome). The work of the anonymous carver is a bit sketchy and rough in the features; for Bernini’s sculpture see RudolfWittkower, Bernini lo scultore del Barocco rornano (Rome: Banco di Santo Spirito: Gruppa Cassa di Risparmio di Roma, 1990): 54.

98.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 86, 1850 (no. 1492); 95, 1865 (no. 71). For “an envelope with 12 hardstone cameos representing the twelve Caesars, Roman emperors, held up by a small gilded trophy on a malachite pedestal, which may serve as a gift” see ibid. 22, 10 March 1838 (letter of Fortunato Pio to A. Zwerner, Saint Petersburg, Russia).

99.The Napoleonic cameos were made in the wake of celebratory events instigated by Napoleon III as justification of his lineage. ASR, Famiglia Castellani 85, inventory of 31 May 1852 (“no. 2210:2 cameos hardstone Frederick of Prussia and Voltaire 35-100”). For Maria Theresa see ibid. 98, 1902.

100.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 153 , Jeweled works (Lavori in gioje), 1847; ibid. 29, p. 14, 3 February 1847.

101.ASR, Farniglia Castellani 86, nos. 2001-2004 (January 1848, bought three cameos Pius IX; 1849 bound in gold cameo with portrait of Pope; 1850, pins with Pope Pius IX; 1850, four pins with cameos of Pius IX with letters in enamel; 1850, four small portraits of Pius IX and fibula with Pius IX cameo hardstone; 1854, portraits of Pius IX both in hardstone and seashell).

102.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 98, June 1904 (“no. 173. Fibula cameo Pius VII 200”).

103.ASR, Farniglia Castella ni 91, 1859; ibid. 98, 1900. See Villa Giulia, Rome, inv. 85255; Caruso, “Oreftcerie ottocentesche” (2000): 223, no. 200.

104.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 83, 1841, 1843 (“cameo of blood-colored jasper with two faces with the Virgin and the Savior,” “carnelian cameo with two faces representing the Savior and the Virgin,” “large cameo hardstone representing the Savior”).

105.It is still too soon for a satisfactory chronology of mounts. There are many facts still to examine and verify in the immense archive. For example, how often do various designs for mounts repeat over time, how frequently are they mentioned in the records? A careful investigation should also focus on what was possible for the Castellani to have seen.

106.Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, “Dogali 1887 (2002); ASR, Famiglia Castellani 196/ 4, 602 ff.

107.A similar necklace was executed with the addition of small rectangular red spinels in the elements joining the oval bezels, which gave a tricolor effect. In the letter with the design sketch Augusto wrote: “Esteemed Sig. Merck/ Rome 14 October 1889/ I recall very well the object which you desired and it is the one drawn here at the end. It is composed of the necklace, earrings, laurel crown and fibuletta: the reduced price is ten thousand Italian lire (L. 10,000). It will remain here until your reply and thanking you sincerely for the memory which you preserve of my work I have the pleasure to call myself Your Most Affectionate Augusto Castellani” [“Egregio Sig. Merck/ Roma 14 ottobre 1889/ Ricardo benissimo l’oggetto che Ella desiderava ed è quello qui a piedi segnato. È composto dalla collana, orecchini, corona d’alloro e fibuletta: il prezzo ristretto ne è di lire italiane diecimila (dico L. 10.000). Resta qui al suo posto fino alla sua risposta e ringraziandolo vivamente della memoria che serba dei miei lavori ho il piacere dirmi Suo Aff.mo Augusto Castellani”], ASR, Famiglia Castellani 26, p. 86, 14 October 1889. The drawing is annotated: “N. 12 cameos emeralds, n. 10 partitions with balas rubies and black enamel and pearls” (“N. 12 camei smeraldi, n. 10 tramezzini con balasci e smalto nero e perle”).

108.ASR, Famiglia Castella ni 38, 16 January 1839.

109.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 54: 1875 (“21 December, for fibula ameythst cameo Prince of Piedmont +500” ); December 1876 (“Prince of Piedmont for fibula cat’s eye cameo 1000”); ibid. 57, December 1887 (“H. M. the King for medal cameo topaz and brilliants 2500”); 1890 (“H. M. the King fibula with seashell, beryls and ruby 4000”); ibid. 58, 27 April 1893 (“H. M. the King for a triangular fibula seashell and emerald cameo 3000”); 28 December r895 (“For a fibula sapphire cameo for H . M. the King 2000 together with a silver cup”).

110.ASR, Famiglia Castellani 92 and 98.

111.Carlo Montani, “Augusto Castellani orafo romano,” Capitolium 4 (1928): 209-22, fig. a p. 214.